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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
(Mark one)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______ to ______.

Commission File Number: 001-39420

 RACKSPACE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

https://cdn.kscope.io/48320884465ee7c4eac1b9545f79e21f-rxt-20221231_g1.jpg

Delaware
81-3369925
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(IRS Employer Identification No.)
1 Fanatical Place
City of Windcrest
San Antonio, Texas 78218
(Address of principal executive offices, including zip code)

(210) 312-4000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, par value $0.01 per shareRXTThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☑ No ☐

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☑ No ☐



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Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☑ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company," and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2022, the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $382 million based upon the closing price of such shares on the Nasdaq Stock Market LLC on such date.

On March 9, 2023, 212,845,147 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share, were outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant's definitive Proxy Statement relating to the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated herein by references in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.


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RACKSPACE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
 TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
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COMMONLY USED OR DEFINED TERMS

Term Definition
2017 Incentive PlanRackspace Technology, Inc. Equity Incentive Plan
2020 Incentive PlanRackspace Technology, Inc. 2020 Equity Incentive Plan
3.50% Notes IndentureIndenture governing the 3.50% Senior Secured Notes
3.50% Senior Secured Notes3.50% Senior Secured Notes due 2028
5.375% Notes IndentureIndenture governing the 5.375% Senior Notes
5.375% Senior Notes5.375% Senior Notes due 2028
8.625% Senior Notes8.625% Senior Notes due 2024
ABRYABRY Partners, LLC and ABRY Partners II, LLC, collectively
ABRY Management Consulting AgreementManagement consulting agreement, between Rackspace Technology Global, Inc. and ABRY Partners, LLC and ABRY Partners II, LLC., dated November 15, 2017
Annual ReportAnnual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022
APJAsia Pacific and Japan
ApolloApollo Global Management, Inc. and its subsidiaries
Apollo Global SecuritiesApollo Global Securities, LLC
Apollo/Searchlight Management Consulting AgreementManagement consulting agreement, between Rackspace Technology Global, Inc., an affiliate of Apollo Global Management, Inc. and its subsidiaries, and Searchlight Capital Partners, L.P., dated November 3, 2016
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASC 606Accounting Standards Codification No. 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers
ASC 842Accounting Standards Codification No. 842, Leases
ASC 420Accounting Standards Codification No. 420, Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations
ASUAccounting Standards Update
AWSAmazon Web Services
Bright SkiesBright Skies GmbH
CitiCitibank, N.A.
CoreMulticloud Services and Apps & Cross Platform segments, in the aggregate
DatapipeDatapipe Parent, Inc.
E.U. European Union
EBITDAEarnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization
EMEAEurope, Middle East and Africa
EPSEarnings per share
ESPPEmployee Stock Purchase Plan
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
February 2021 Refinancing TransactionDebt refinancing transaction on February 9, 2021, in which we borrowed $2,300 million under the Term Loan Facility and issued $500 million of 3.50% Senior Secured Notes
First Lien Credit AgreementCredit agreement governing the Senior Facilities
GAAPAccounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America
Incentive Plans2017 Incentive Plan and 2020 Incentive Plan, together
Inception ParentInception Parent, Inc.
Indentures5.375% Notes Indenture and 3.50% Notes Indenture, together
IPO Rackspace Technology's initial public offering
IRCInternal Revenue Code
IRSU.S. Internal Revenue Service
July 2021 Restructuring PlanInternal restructuring plan committed to on July 21, 2021
Just AnalyticsJust Analytics Pte. Ltd.


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LIBORLondon Interbank Offered Rate
MD&AManagement's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
MOICMultiple of invested capital
NasdaqNasdaq Stock Market LLC
PSUsPerformance stock units
Prior Term Loan FacilitySenior secured first lien term loan facility entered into on November 3, 2016 and fully repaid in conjunction with the February 2021 Refinancing Transaction
R&D Research and development
Rackspace AcquisitionNovember 3, 2016 acquisition of Rackspace Hosting, Inc. (now named Rackspace Technology Global, Inc.) by Inception Parent, Inc.
Rackspace HostingRackspace Hosting, Inc.
Rackspace TechnologyRackspace Technology, Inc.
Rackspace Technology GlobalRackspace Technology Global, Inc.
Rackspace USRackspace US, Inc.
Receivables Financing FacilityAccounts receivable financing agreement
Revolving Credit FacilitySenior secured first lien revolving credit facility
RSUsRestricted stock units
SaaSSoftware-as-a-service
Searchlight Searchlight Capital Partners L.P.
SECSecurities and Exchange Commission
Securities ActSecurities Act of 1933, as amended
Senior FacilitiesTerm Loan Facility and Revolving Credit Facility, together
SG&ASelling, general and administrative
SPVSpecial purpose vehicle
SSPStandalone selling price
Term Loan FacilitySenior secured first lien term loan facility
Transaction Fee AgreementTransaction fee agreement, between Rackspace Technology Global, Inc. and an affiliate of Apollo Global Management, Inc. and its subsidiaries, dated November 3, 2016
U.K. United Kingdom
U.S.United States


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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report contains certain information that may constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. While we have specifically identified certain information as being forward-looking in the context of its presentation, we caution you that all statements contained in this report that are not clearly historical in nature, including statements regarding anticipated financial performance, management’s plans and objectives for future operations, business prospects, market conditions, and other matters are forward-looking. Forward-looking statements are contained principally in the sections of this report entitled “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Without limiting the generality of the preceding sentence, any time we use the words “expects,” “intends,” “will,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “confident,” “continue,” “propose,” “seeks,” “could,” “may,” “should,” “estimates,” “forecasts,” “might,” “goals,” “objectives,” “targets,” “planned,” “projects,” and similar expressions, we intend to clearly express that the information deals with possible future events and is forward-looking in nature. However, the absence of these words or similar expressions does not mean that a statement is not forward-looking.

Forward-looking information involves risks, uncertainties, and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in, or reasonably inferred from, such statements, including without limitation, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our results of operations and business, and the risks and uncertainties disclosed or referenced in Part I Item 1A. of this report under the heading “Risk Factors.” Therefore, caution should be taken not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Much of the information in this report that looks toward future performance of the company is based on various factors and important assumptions about future events that may or may not actually occur. As a result, our operations and financial results in the future could differ materially and substantially from those we have discussed in the forward-looking statements included in this Annual Report. We assume no obligation (and specifically disclaim any such obligation) to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by law.

TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES AND SERVICE MARKS

“Rackspace,” “Rackspace Technology,” “Fanatical,” “Fanatical Experience,” “Rackspace Fabric,” Rackspace Data Freedom,” “Rackspace Services for VMware Cloud™” and “MyRackspace” are registered or unregistered trademarks of Rackspace US, Inc. in the U.S. and/or other countries. OpenStack® is a registered trademark of OpenStack, LLC and Openstack Foundation in the U.S. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names and service marks referred to in this Annual Report may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, trade names and service marks. Other trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this Annual Report are the property of their respective holders. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names, trademarks or service marks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.


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PART I
ITEM 1 – BUSINESS

Overview

Rackspace Technology is a leading end-to-end multicloud technology services company. We design, build, and operate our customers’ cloud environments across all major technology platforms, irrespective of technology stack or deployment model. We partner with our customers at every stage of their cloud journey, enabling them to modernize applications, build new products and adopt innovative technologies.

Cloud technology is reinventing how companies store, process and manage their data.

Businesses have accelerated their adoption of cloud technologies in recent years due to:

Strong growth in highly variable, high-scale workloads (a computing task performed by a business application) such as mobile applications, device telemetry and associated marketing, tracking and data. Those workloads have also driven an explosion of data volumes. All of these workloads run more efficiently in the flexible, agile, variable-cost environment of cloud technologies with its associated highly scaled data storage.
The need to compete with “digital natives” (technology companies that began their existence online in the digital age and do not have legacy infrastructure or technology to maintain and support).
The emergence of cloud-based business tools, such as data analytics, machine learning and artificial intelligence, that help companies optimize business performance.
A global pandemic that challenged companies to accommodate an increasingly remote workforce.
In addition, the cost to maintain a company-owned data center (known in industry parlance as “on-premises” or “on-prem” data centers) has become cost prohibitive since companies must constantly upgrade hardware, maintain physical infrastructure and constantly apply security patches to counteract emerging security threats. Companies are also looking to reduce their on-premises operations budgets to fund the build-out of their cloud management operations and skill base.

At the same time, several dominant players have emerged in the cloud computing industry: the “hyperscalers” – AWS, Google Cloud and Microsoft Azure, which are the leading public cloud providers; as well as VMware, which is a leading provider of private cloud technology. These technology providers operate cloud environments at a massive scale and have a significant cost-benefit advantage compared to a company-owned on-prem data center. They can also easily invest billions of dollars in product development and innovation, maintenance of the physical infrastructure and upkeep of important security protocols and technology.

As a result of these developments, most companies will become increasingly dependent on cloud technologies for most of their new workloads, as well as a portion of existing workloads, over the coming years.

The multicloud paradigm brings additional complexity for businesses moving to the cloud.

Moving to the cloud is not as simple as selecting a single platform and migrating data. The cloud is taking market share because it is a structurally different platform with structurally different cost dynamics. Oftentimes, new code must be written, or existing code must be re-written, to take full advantage of cloud capabilities. Likewise, simply moving existing code to the cloud (known as “lifting and shifting”) can often result in high or unforeseen cost over-runs. The efficiencies of cloud are real, but it takes substantial effort to realize them.

Companies also face the challenge of managing multiple clouds. They often employ more than one cloud solution for several business reasons:

to prevent lock-in with any one cloud provider;
to ensure data storage redundancy and protect against business interruption;
to provide for enhanced security, compliance and governance;
to access business tools that may run better on one cloud platform versus another; or
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to accommodate past decisions related to prior deployments and/or acquisitions, both of which can force most large companies into managing workloads situated on multiple clouds.
In addition, some business applications cannot migrate to the cloud and must remain on mature cloud platforms like private cloud, or even on-prem data centers, for various reasons:
Corporate governance requires data sovereignty for sensitive data such as financial or health information.
Older applications, often built in-house on older code, are not cloud-ready, and the cost of modernizing or replacing them outweighs the benefits of moving to the cloud.
Data egress fees (fees charged by the hyperscalers for moving data out of their storage environment) have highlighted the need to keep frequently-accessed data on non-hyperscaler platforms.
As a result, businesses quickly find themselves in a multicloud paradigm that includes two or more hyperscaler platforms, private cloud and data and applications that are hosted on-premises or in a colocation or managed hosting facility. In such a complex environment, even the most sophisticated IT organizations at the largest multinational companies require outside resources to manage their multicloud presence.

Rackspace Technology is a leading pure-play cloud solutions company.

We help companies of all sizes manage their transition to the cloud, make sense of their IT infrastructure, migrate their data to the cloud, optimize their cloud presence on an ongoing basis and manage the workloads best left to managed hosting or other mature platforms.

Few companies have the internal resources required to effectively manage a transition to the cloud. Building a well-rounded and capable in-house team would require hiring experts on all three hyperscaler platforms as well as private cloud, colocation and managed hosting. We believe professionals with these skill sets are challenging for companies to source and hire because they generally prefer to work at a technology company. We believe this creates an opportunity for a service partner like Rackspace Technology which enables businesses to fully embrace the power of all cloud technologies.

Our team of 6,800 highly skilled Rackers, including consultants and engineers, partners with companies at every stage of their cloud transformation journey and helps them:

select the right platforms for their business needs;
manage the movement of applications and data to the cloud and re-hosting of applications best suited for managed hosting;
strategically locate and manage growing volumes of associated data storage to minimize cost and business risk;
optimize their cloud footprint by leveraging new offerings and new pricing models from the hyperscalers, as well as new cloud computing technologies;
operate their cloud environment;
monitor security and ensure the security infrastructure is kept up to date;
modernize their legacy business applications so they are optimized to run in the cloud; and
mine their business data for actionable insights using cloud data analytics tools.
We aim to be our customers’ most trusted advisor and services partner in their path to cloud transformation and to accelerate the value of their cloud investments. We give customers the ability to make informed decisions when choosing the right technologies, and we recommend solutions based on each customer’s unique objectives. In this way, we empower our customers to harness the full benefits of cloud adoption.
We differentiate ourselves from other service providers by:

focusing solely on the cloud as the only pure play cloud solutions company;
automating much of the manual labor to reduce cost for our customers;
providing our renowned Fanatical Experience for our customers;
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maintaining close relationships with the major cloud providers – AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure and VMware; and
providing a full suite of cloud services across public and private cloud, as well as managed hosting and colocation services, so that enterprises can cost-effectively maintain legacy applications that are not cloud-ready while migrating their business to the cloud gradually.
We have a culture of innovation that permeates all that we do. Our Rackers gather insights from customers, cloud partners and each other to design, implement and operate advanced cloud environments. With our deep technical expertise, we build solutions alongside our customers to solve their most complex business challenges and explore their most promising business opportunities. Our tight-knit relationships with leading cloud partners enable Rackers to be on the front lines of cloud technology and among the first to utilize the latest capabilities of the cloud when our cloud partners launch new solutions. Our partnerships, Rackers and culture combine to ensure that we are at the forefront of major trends in technology, including cloud native application development, Internet of Things and containers. We believe this expertise - and our ability to deliver it effectively - enables our customers to innovate faster and stay ahead of their competition.

Rackspace Fabric, our proprietary cloud software, is a significant differentiator.

Rackspace Fabric is the proprietary software that underpins our industry-leading automation. It includes over 200 unique tools and components to deliver our services and represents an investment of over $1 billion and 12 million hours of highly skilled professionals' time. We believe it gives us a sustainable competitive advantage that would be difficult, if not impossible, for a competitor to replicate. Rackspace Fabric serves as a single pane of glass through which customers can manage their entire cloud presence and delivers automation, artificial intelligence, predictive analytics and proprietary tools that make our services even more reliable and easier to use.

Rackspace Fabric was built over the course of our two decades of experience in the cloud business. We leverage automation to reduce the amount of manual labor associated with serving our customers, as well as to improve efficiency. Whenever there is repetitive, manual labor associated with customer-related tasks, we automate the task. We also use advanced machine learning tools to identify additional work that can be automated. This has provided Rackspace Technology with a critical mass of automation, based upon institutional knowledge and know-how, that we continue to grow incrementally every year.

This is in direct contrast to our competition, many of whom charge for their services on a markup over labor costs, and therefore are not incentivized to employ automation in order to reduce customer costs.

Approximately 75% of our workloads are automated today, an industry leading figure that increased dramatically in recent years. We continually strive to optimize our automation to drive further efficiency gains in our business.

Rackspace Fabric includes automation that ranges from service delivery to self-healing infrastructure, giving us the ability to anticipate and proactively respond to opportunities and threats. It ensures consistency in our customers’ experiences and allows our Rackers to automate key service and application management processes, freeing up resources to focus on strategic, high-value business opportunities. This drives an efficient business model that has generated revenue per employee of over $450,000 for the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2022, which we believe is ahead of our competitors and in-line with leading SaaS companies.

Our go-to-market and service-delivery strategy.

Our business benefits from a highly efficient go-to-market strategy. Our sales efforts are led primarily by a team of over 900 quota-bearing representatives and customer success managers. Our ecosystem of partners serves as an extension of our direct sales force, providing a source of additional new business opportunities. Our customer engagement model begins with our professional services, where we partner with a customer to assess its objectives and design the best cloud strategy to meet its needs, and continues with our flexible recurring service offerings.

We deliver our services to a global customer base through an integrated service delivery model. We have a presence in more than 60 cities around the world. This footprint allows us to better serve customers based in various countries, especially multinational companies requiring cross-border solutions.

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Our success has been recognized by third parties and customers alike. We served over 100,000 customers across 120 countries as of December 31, 2022. We are recognized as a Leader in the 2020 Gartner Magic Quadrant for Public Cloud Infrastructure Professional and Managed Services, Worldwide, Forrester Leader in its 2020 report, Forrester Wave Multicloud Managed Services Providers, Q4 2020, IDC 2021 Worldwide Managed Multicloud Services Marketspace, and 2021 ISG Public Cloud and Private Hybrid Cloud Data Services/Solutions. In addition, we have also received several industry partner awards including the 2020 Google Cloud Breakthrough North America Partner of the Year Award, 2021, AWS Migration Partner of the Year (US), 2021, Kubernetes on Microsoft Azure Advanced Specialization, and Virtual Desktop Advanced Specialization, 2021, VMware CloudHealth Global Partner of the Year, 2021, and Dell Technologies Global Alliances – Excellence in Expansion, EMEA Award 2021. In 2022 we received the following designations from ISG, a leading global technology research and advisory firm: Provider Lens Leader in Cybersecurity - Solutions and Services Report, Provider Lens Leader in Google Cloud Partner Ecosystem Report, Provider Lens Leader in Microsoft Partner Ecosystem Report and Partner Lens Leader in Next-Gen Private/Hybrid Cloud - Data Center Services & Solutions.

Our History

Rackspace Technology’s predecessor company was founded in 1998, and was focused primarily on providing outsourced, dedicated IT infrastructure, primarily for small and mid-sized businesses. The predecessor company was publicly traded from its initial public offering in August 2008 until it was taken private in a leveraged buyout in November 2016. Rackspace Technology subsequently returned to the public markets through an initial public offering in August 2020.

During the time that Rackspace Technology was a private company from 2016 to 2020, management focused on transforming the business to serve companies that were migrating to the cloud. This included forging and strengthening partnerships with the major infrastructure providers such as AWS, Google, Microsoft and VMware; enhancing the company’s service offerings, including professional services, managed security and data services; building an enterprise sales force and professional services-driven sales approach to penetrate a broader market opportunity; and expanding the company’s geographic presence.

Today, we are a trusted partner to the global cloud ecosystem. We maintain close relationships with major cloud infrastructure and application vendors, enabling us to provide our customers with complete, unbiased multicloud services, all through our single customer interface.

Our Integrated Services Portfolio

We serve our customers through an integrated services portfolio organized in two segments—Multicloud Services and Apps & Cross Platform Services. The services across these two segments are described in more detail below:

Multicloud Services: Our Multicloud Services segment includes our public and private cloud managed services offerings, as well as professional services related to designing and building multicloud solutions and cloud-native applications. We offer an integrated suite of managed services offerings across our private cloud, the leading public clouds and colocation. Our managed cloud services help customers determine, manage and optimize the right infrastructure, platforms and services on which to deploy their applications to achieve the best performance, agility, security and cost efficiency. We also help customers establish governance, operational and architectural frameworks to mitigate risks and reduce inefficiencies, so they can manage costs, achieve industry-specific compliance objectives and improve security.

Within our Multicloud Services segment, we offer the following services:

Private cloud: These service offerings provide compute, storage and applications accessed by a specific customer, either with a cloud management layer (in managed private cloud) or without one (in managed hosting). We offer managed private clouds powered by leading technologies like VMware, Microsoft and OpenStack in our data centers as well as in those owned by customers or by third parties such as colocation providers. We also offer managed VMware on AWS, delivering an increasingly popular hybrid combination. Our private cloud offerings can be used with or without virtualization software.

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Managed public cloud: These offerings address the challenges of managing applications and data on the AWS, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud public clouds. We bundle the underlying public cloud infrastructure with our expertise and experience, managed services and proprietary tools. While the infrastructure providers are responsible for their data centers, servers, storage, networking and operating system software, we help customers navigate, migrate, architect and deploy their applications on those leading public cloud platforms. After a migration, we manage, secure and optimize the customer’s environments on an ongoing basis using our tools, automation and expertise, while supporting the customer with robust service level agreements. These offerings do not require us to commit significant capital expenditures given that third parties provide the infrastructure.
Managed hosting and colocation: For customers that require infrastructure on mature cloud platforms, we also offer them the option to place their own servers and networking hardware in our data centers (colocation) or to utilize dedicated servers provided by us in our data centers (managed hosting). However, demand for these services has lessened in recent years as more and more customers move their data and applications to the cloud. In some cases, we are proactively approaching customers and encouraging them to move from these mature services to the cloud in order to preserve the customer relationship.

Apps & Cross Platform: Our Apps & Cross Platform segment includes managed applications, managed security and data services, as well as professional services related to designing and implementing application, security and data services.

Managed applications: Our managed application services include running large-scale SaaS applications for customers on our and public cloud infrastructure, such as Oracle, SAP and Office 365. This includes key functions such as: managing a customer’s applications and performing key functions such as account management and scaling up or down of required cloud resources. Additionally, we manage productivity and collaboration applications such as email and hosted Microsoft SharePoint.
Managed security: We provide fully-integrated security solutions that combine cutting-edge technology with our in-house Security Operations Center to provide customers with threat detection, analysis and remediation capabilities. Additionally, we have integrated security platforms into our management tools to give our customers one view of their organization’s vulnerability and threats.
We offer additional managed security services to customers in the areas of (i) security threat assessment and prevention, (ii) proactive threat detection and response, (iii) rapid remediation, (iv) governance, risk and compliance assistance across multiple cloud platforms and (v) Privacy and Data Protection services, including detailed access restrictions and reporting. Our 24x7x365 Customer Security Operations Center is staffed by experienced Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC) security analysts.
Data services: We help customers use their data to further innovate by providing services and expertise for data extraction, transformation, ingestion, storage and analysis. We utilize both traditional analytics platforms and new, machine learning technologies to build repeatable, scalable and automated platforms that extract meaningful insights. Our developers, administrators and cloud and data analytics architects are skilled across a full range of database services, including managed relational databases (Oracle, SAP, SQL Server and MySQL), big data (Hadoop), managed NoSQL (MongoDB) and managed SAP HANA. Our data services are offered both through our managed services subscriptions and through our professional services offerings.

We offer professional services across our entire portfolio, including multicloud solutions, applications, security and data. As part of our professional services process, we meet customers at every stage of their cloud journey and design solutions focused on modernizing their infrastructure and applications to enhance the value of their cloud technologies. This process often serves as the starting point for new business opportunities; following our initial professional services engagement, a customer will typically use any combination of our managed services under long-term contracts, and will often use our professional services multiple times as their technology needs continue to evolve. For some new customer relationships, the early stages of the relationship can be weighted toward infrastructure revenue; in these cases, our customer success sales team is tasked with up-selling and cross-selling additional services, including professional services, to enhance the overall customer relationship.

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In addition to our integrated services portfolio described above, we also offer customers our OpenStack Public Cloud solution, our third reporting segment, which represents our legacy business prior to our pivot to multicloud. While we expect to continue to offer our OpenStack Public Cloud solution, we ceased to actively market it to customers in 2017.

Effective on January 1, 2023, Rackspace Technology reorganized around a two-business unit operating model, Public Cloud and Private Cloud. Public Cloud and Private Cloud have very different business dynamics and require different skill sets and levels of investment to manage. This two-business unit operating model ensures increased focus, delivery and service quality for our customers. Beginning in 2023, Rackspace Technology will change its segment reporting to reflect this reorganization under three reporting segments: Public Cloud, Private Cloud and OpenStack Public Cloud.

Our Technology Platform

Our technology platform is at the center of the Fanatical Experience that we deliver to customers. Our technologies focus on removing the complexities of multicloud deployments, unifying compelling aspects of the experience for our customers and enabling us to deliver scalable solutions.

Innovative automation drives efficiency for us and our customers, enabling us to rapidly and consistently deliver our solutions across multiple products and clouds at scale. Rackspace Business Automation is a custom platform developed to handle over 12 million events and over 1 billion actions per month across physical devices, virtual devices, systems and tools. Data center automation provides services and applications to automate provisioning, configuring and the decommissioning of data center infrastructure. UIPath Robotic Process Automation is deployed across our business to automate repetitive tasks. We can automate 75% of customer support workloads based upon the automation of thousands of unique processes across our support organization.
AIOps is a new field of software that combines monitoring, machine learning and automation to enhance IT operations. Our AIOps platform correlates monitoring events across our customers’ physical and virtual devices into a single incident or problem, significantly reducing the time to resolution for complex incidents. We developed a first-of-its-kind multi-tenant AIOps solution that processes millions of compliance-related events each month.
Predictive operations enables our data scientists to build sophisticated models to provide actionable insights to our business leaders, increasing our agility and ability to identify opportunities that enhance our customer relationships.
Self-service APIs enable our customers to access data and resources programmatically, extending our automation and service delivery into their native tools and processes. We support integration with our ticketing systems to enable two-way integrated support workflows and billing system integration to enable access to consolidated billing data in multicloud environments. Additionally, our pre-built integration with ServiceNow enables enterprise customers to simplify connectivity between our tools and ServiceNow.
MyRackspace and other portals and associated mobile apps service over 600,000 active monthly users and support product specific self-service, insights, account management, security management, ticketing and billing. These portals are unified with our custom framework and design language, Pilot and Helix, providing a consistent experience and integrated navigation between our product lines and features. Our custom identity management system authenticates access to our user interfaces and APIs. This includes federation capabilities to integrate with our customers’ identity providers.
Unified billing enables us to deliver an integrated single invoice for customers across all multicloud deployments. Our systems extract and rerate bills from public cloud hyperscalers and merge data from our products and services to generate a single invoice each month, while applying sophisticated billing and discount models.
Service management applications ensure scale, speed, quality and consistency in our service delivery. These applications, including our custom CORE and Encore tools, support configurable rules and routing engines, integrated escalation management, detailed queue management and management visibility and reporting. These tools are augmented with sophisticated workforce management solutions to manage work shifts by utilizing historical data and trends across ticketing, chat and telephony, to maintain and appropriately staff our 24x7x365 operations.

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Our Growth Strategies

In order to continue to drive growth and capture our large market opportunity, key elements of our growth strategies include:

growing our private cloud business with new solutions, such as Rackspace Services for VMware Cloud and Rackspace Data Freedom;
building innovative solutions to broaden our portfolio, including scaled cloud-native solutions on our public cloud platforms and full-stack cloud offerings for infrastructure, applications and data;
accelerating sales motions to defend our commercial business, expanding into mid-market and selectively targeting enterprise customers with our differentiated solutions both horizontally and vertically;
identifying new areas with unmet needs and making smart technology bets to capture those opportunities ahead of the trend. For example, new product offerings such as Rackspace Data Freedom and Managed Kubernetes introduced to claim previously-unfilled white space in the cloud market;
igniting the Racker Culture of innovation and Fanatical Experience for our customers and building on our unique culture by living our core values, embracing a growth mindset and operating with speed while celebrating accomplishments; and
expanding automation to drive operational effectiveness and continuous process improvement for ourselves and our customers while remaining ahead of the competition in automation and building on our advantage.

Our Competition

We believe our technology and services expertise positions us well to compete with other technology and services providers. We face competition primarily from:

In-house IT departments of our customers and potential customers provide services for their respective organizations, but typically need help scaling large technology environments and maximizing the value from their cloud investments, especially when speed, cost and innovation are key constraints.
Traditional global IT systems integrators, such as Accenture, Atos, Capgemini, Cognizant, Deloitte, DXC Technology and IBM, offer consulting and outsourcing, in a labor-intensive model, for large enterprise customers. Many of these businesses largely support legacy technologies and, where cloud capabilities exist, legacy revenue streams disincentivize these companies from fully embracing cloud technologies.
Cloud service providers and digital systems integrators provide either consultation and implementation services for digital workflows or cloud services for a single cloud vendor. The solutions offered by these companies are often narrow in scope and are not well-suited for companies with complex multicloud objectives.
Regional managed services providers use a local go-to-market approach, and provide cloud services within a single region or few regions. These companies are unable to serve the full needs of multinational customers.
Colocation providers, such as Equinix, CyrusOne and QTS, provide secure environments for hardware and access to network connectivity. We believe that these companies provide limited services differentiation, and their customers do not benefit from the economics of cloud-based technologies.
We believe the principal competitive factors in our market include, but are not limited to:

Focus on the cloud
Technology and services expertise
Customer experience
Speed of innovation
Strength of relationships with technology partners
Automation and scalability
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Standardized operational processes
Geographic reach
Brand recognition and reputation
Price

We believe that we compare favorably on the basis of the factors listed above. However, many of our competitors have: substantially greater financial, technical and marketing resources; relationships with large vendor partners; larger global presence; larger customer bases; longer operating histories; greater brand recognition; and more established relationships in the industry than we do. Furthermore, new entrants not currently considered to be competitors may enter the market through acquisitions, partnerships or strategic relationships.

Our Customers

We serve a wide range of customers across geography, size and industry.

Geography. We serve a global customer base. As of December 31, 2022, we served over 100,000 customers in over 120 countries.
Size. We have a strong presence with customers of all sizes, including enterprise businesses (revenue in excess of $3 billion), mid-market businesses (revenue of $300 million to $3 billion) and commercial customers (revenue less than $300 million).
Industry. We serve customers across all sectors, including highly regulated industries with complex security, compliance and governance requirements.

We have low customer concentration; no customer represented 3% or more of our total revenue in 2022.

Representative customers by industry vertical are listed below:

Financial Services
Healthcare
Media & Technology
Retail, Consumer & Leisure
Aon
Apria Healthcare
BT
Nike
Everest Insurance
Medecision
Braze
VW/Porsche
TD Bank
Teva Pharmaceuticals
Intrado
Walmart
BFC Group HoldingsArthrexFlextechAwaze
Our Approach to Partnerships

We benefit from differentiated partnerships with all major public and private cloud vendors, including AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud and VMware. These partnerships provide us with a competitive advantage unmatched by our competitors, spanning across multiple disciplines, including:

Comprehensive alignment: We work with major technology partners through a systematic engagement model across six key areas of our business: executive, alliances, solutions, marketing, sales, and service delivery to ensure alignment on key initiatives. We operate strategic programs that include solutions milestones, performance reviews and long-term strategic initiatives.
New business opportunities: Our sales teams and pre-sales engineering experts work with sales teams at technology partners to offer bundled solutions through a combined go-to-market effort. This results in a more compelling value proposition and greater value for our mutual customer. We believe our partners view us as a top services partner for their cloud technologies, as we are often cited as a ‘go-to’ services vendor for new business opportunities.
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Innovative solutions: We work closely with our partners’ product engineering teams as the baseline for our roadmap development and to provide input into our partners’ development plan. This critical input allows us and our partners to develop complementary services and technology. This has helped us arrive and stay at the forefront of innovation well before our competitors, and develop services and tools related to emerging technologies such as cloud-native application development, machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI).
We believe these relationships are beneficial to us, our partners and our customers. We and our partners both receive critical inputs for further innovation and benefit from joint go-to-market initiatives, while our customers are able to maximize their use of innovative technologies more efficiently, reduce time-to-market and remain competitive.


Sales and Delivery

Our services are sold via a global direct sales team of over 360 sales representatives and over 560 service delivery managers as of December 31, 2022, through third-party channel partners and through online orders on our website. Our sales model is based on both distributed and centralized sales teams with leads generated from customer referrals, channel partners and corporate marketing efforts.

Professional services are at the core of our consultative sales model and often serve as the gateway to our platform. For new business opportunities, our professional services organization engages closely with a customer to assess and design the best cloud solution for that customer. This is often the first step toward a long-term services agreement with a customer where we manage a customer’s cloud operations and give them the flexibility to evolve their spend with us as their needs change over time.

Our network of channel and technology partners also plays an important role in our sales efforts. Our channel partners - including management and technical consultancies, technology integrators, software application providers, value-added resellers and web developers - serve as a source of new business opportunities, primarily for small and medium-sized customers. Our technology partners serve as an extension of our sales force, often leading to new business opportunities as their customers recognize the need for a services partner to make the best use of their technology investments. In some cases, we collaborate directly with these partners on go-to-market efforts.

Our Customer Success team includes over 560 Rackers and engages in client relationship, contract management, managing deliverables, client retention and growth of our install base. This team is responsible for understanding the existing customers’ changing business needs and translating them into IT requirements, resulting in successful project execution or alignment of our other service offerings.

Our Culture

At the heart of Fanatical Experience is our unique culture. We invest in the recruitment, development and retention of our Rackers. Inclusion and diversity are top priorities for our company; we attract and cultivate top talent from around the world with diverse backgrounds and a range of expertise. We are highly selective. In our quest to hire the best talent, less than 2% of all applicants are offered positions. We strive to ensure our employees are not just technical experts, but also obsessed with customer outcomes and delivering Fanatical Experience.

We offer Rackers various professional development opportunities through Rackspace University, along with award-winning onboarding and leadership development programs, enabling them to enhance their capabilities across technologies and further their professional growth.

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Additionally, in 2022 we were recognized with several workplace-related awards:

America's Most Loved Workplaces, published by Newsweek Magazine and the Best Practice Institute
Top 50 Most Inspiring Workplaces – EMEA, published by Inspiring Workplaces
Top 50 Most Inspiring Workplaces – North America, published by Inspiring Workplaces
Top 50 Best Companies for Latinas to Work for in the U.S., published by Latina Style Magazine
Best Places to Work for LGBTQ+ Equality, published by the Human Rights Campaign
Company Culture & Mental Health Initiative, awarded by the SDC Awards
Talent Management – Gold winner, awarded by Brandon Hall Group
Talent Management – Silver winner, awarded by Brandon Hall Group
Most Loved Workplaces-certified by Best Practice Institute
Great Place to Work-certified by Great Place to Work Mexico
Great Place to Work-certified by Great Place to Work India
Best HR Teams, awarded by Comparably
Best Companies to Work for Work-Life Balance, awarded by Comparably

Our Rackers are passionate about serving our communities as well. Rackspace Technology provides a minimum of 40 hours of paid time for each Racker to volunteer annually, with over 20,000 volunteer hours logged for the year ended December 31, 2022. The Rackspace Foundation, a Racker-funded nonprofit organization, has been supporting underserved San Antonio-area schools through charitable grants since 2008.

Our Employees

As of December 31, 2022, we employed approximately 6,800 Rackers in 23 countries, including 3,100 Rackers in North America, 1,100 Rackers in EMEA, 2,500 in APJ and 100 Rackers in Australia and New Zealand. Of our North American Rackers, approximately 700 work from our corporate headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. As of December 31, 2022, approximately 60% of all Rackers were classified as work-from-home. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining agreement, nor have we experienced any work stoppages.

Seasonality

Our business is not materially affected by seasonal trends.

Other Information

Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements for our annual stockholders’ meetings and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website, www.rackspace.com. Our website and the information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in, and are not considered part of, this Annual Report. In addition, we will provide electronic or paper copies of our filings free of charge upon request.

The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the SEC. You can review copies of these documents on the SEC's website. The SEC’s website address is www.sec.gov.

Any references to websites are intended to be inactive textual references only.

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ITEM 1A – RISK FACTORS

Summary

Our ability to execute our strategies is subject to certain risks. The risks described under the heading “Risk Factors” immediately following this summary may cause us not to realize the full benefits of our competitive strengths or may cause us to be unable to successfully execute all or part of our strategies. Some of the more significant challenges and risks we face include the following:

attracting new customers, retaining existing customers and selling additional services and comparable gross margin services to our customers;
risks associated with general economic conditions and uncertainties affecting markets in which we operate and economic volatility that could adversely impact our business, including the COVID-19 pandemic;
our ability to successfully execute our strategies and adapt to evolving customer demands, including the trend to lower-gross margin offerings;
risk associated with impairment of goodwill, intangible assets or other long-lived assets;
risks associated with our substantial indebtedness and our obligations to repay such indebtedness;
the loss of, and our reliance on, third-party providers, vendors, consultants and software;
competing successfully against current and future competitors;
security breaches, cyber-attacks and other interruptions to our and our third-party service providers’ technological and physical infrastructures; and
our ability to meet our service level commitments to customers, including network uptime requirements.

Risk Factors

In addition to the other information set forth in this report, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance and historical trends may not predict results or trends in future periods.

Risks Related to Our Business

If we are unable to attract new customers, retain existing customers and sell additional services and sell comparable gross margin services to customers, our revenue and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our ability to maintain or increase our revenues and profit may be impacted by a number of factors, including our ability to attract new customers, retain existing customers and sell additional services and comparable gross margin services to our customers. In addition, as we seek to grow our customer base increasingly through outbound sales, we expect to incur higher customer acquisition costs and, to the extent we are unable to retain and sell additional services to existing customers, our revenue and results of operations may decrease.

Growth in the demand for our services may be inhibited and we may be unable to profitably maintain or grow our customer base for a number of reasons, such as:

our inability to provide compelling services or effectively market them to new and existing customers;
loss of our favorable relationships with our third-party cloud service providers;
customer migration to platforms that we do not have expertise in managing;
the inability of customers to differentiate our services from those of our competitors or our inability to effectively communicate such distinctions;
the decision of customers to host internally, in third-party cloud infrastructure, or in third-party colocation facilities as an alternative to the use of our services;
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the decision of customers to use internal or other third-party resources to manage their platforms and applications;
reductions in IT spending by customers or potential customers;
our inability to penetrate international markets;
a reduction in the demand for our services due to macroeconomic factors in the markets in which we operate;
our inability to strengthen awareness of our brand; and
reliability, quality or compatibility problems with our services.
Moreover, we may face difficulty retaining existing customers over the long term. Certain customer contracts, particularly within our Multicloud Services segment, typically have initial terms (typically from 12 to 36 months) and, unless terminated, may be renewed or automatically extended for shorter, rolling periods after the initial term. Our customers have no obligation to renew their services after their initial contract periods expire and any termination fees associated with an early termination may not be sufficient to recover our costs associated with such contracts. In addition, many of our other service offerings, including most of our public cloud offerings, can be based on a consumption model and can be canceled at any time without penalty. As a result, we may face high rates of customer churn if we are unable to meet our customer needs, requirements and preferences.

Our costs associated with generating revenue from existing customers are generally lower than costs associated with generating revenue from new customers, and depending on the customer and the service offering, there may be substantial variation in the gross margins associated with existing and new customers. Any failure by us in continuing to attract new customers or grow our revenue from existing customers could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our business is affected by general economic conditions and uncertainties affecting markets in which we operate and economic volatility could adversely impact our business.

Our overall performance depends in part on worldwide economic and geopolitical conditions. The U.S., the U.K. and other key international economies have experienced cyclical downturns from time to time in which economic activity was impacted by falling demand for a variety of goods and services, restricted credit, poor liquidity, reduced corporate profitability, volatility in credit, equity and foreign exchange markets, bankruptcies and overall uncertainty with respect to the economy. These economic conditions can arise suddenly and the full impact of such conditions can remain uncertain. In addition, geopolitical developments, such as existing and potential trade wars and other events beyond our control, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in the imposition of related public health measures and travel restrictions, and civil unrest can increase levels of political and economic unpredictability globally and increase the volatility of global financial markets. Any of these effects could have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The effects of COVID-19 and its variants continue to evolve, and the full impact and duration are unknown. To date, COVID-19 and its variant have not adversely affected our results of operations or financial condition in any material respect. However, there are remaining uncertainties as a result of COVID 19, particularly the possibility of new variant strain(s) of the virus, the potential resurgence in the spread of the virus and the pace of economic recovery. The full extent to which COVID-19 and its variants may impact our financial condition or results of operations over the medium term, therefore, remains uncertain.

Political and economic uncertainty surrounding the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine could have a material adverse effect on our business. Currently, the conflict has not had a significant impact on our operations or financial performance. However, our overall performance depends in part on worldwide economic and geopolitical conditions. We are monitoring the situation and the potential for the conflict to spread to other countries, which could adversely impact our customers and operations, and we may take actions that modify our business operations as may be required by federal, state or local authorities, or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers and stockholders.

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If we are unable to successfully execute our strategies and continue to develop and sell the services and solutions our customers demand, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.

We must adapt to rapidly changing customer demands and preferences in order to successfully execute our strategies. This requires us to anticipate and respond to customer demands and preferences, address business model shifts, optimize our go-to-market execution by improving our cost structure, align sales coverage with strategic goals, improve channel execution and strengthen our services and capabilities in our areas of strategic focus. Any failure to successfully execute our strategies, including any failure to invest in strategic growth areas, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our strategies require significant investments that may adversely affect our near-term revenue growth and results of operations.

We expect the implementation of our strategies to require significant investments, and the investments we must make could result in lower gross margins and raise our operating expenses and capital expenditures. The risks and challenges we face in connection with our strategies include upgrading and integrating our service offerings, expanding our professional services capability, expanding into new geographies, growing in geographies where we currently have a small presence and ensuring that the performance, features and reliability of our service offerings and our customer service remain competitive in a rapidly changing technological environment. These investments may adversely affect our near-term revenue growth and results of operations, and we cannot assure that they will ultimately be successful.

We have a history of losses and may not be able to achieve profitability in the future.

We incurred net losses of $245.8 million, $218.3 million and $804.8 million in the fiscal years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively. We may not be able to achieve profitability in the future or on a consistent basis. We have incurred substantial expenses and expended significant resources to market, promote, and sell our services, and we have substantial debt service payments. Our ability to achieve or maintain profitability will depend on our ability to increase our revenue, manage our cost structure, and avoid significant liabilities. Revenue growth may slow or revenue may decline for a number of reasons, including general macroeconomic conditions, increasing competition, or a decrease in the growth of the markets in which we operate. Additionally, we may encounter unforeseen operating expenses, difficulties, complications, delays and other unknown factors that may result in losses in future periods. Any failure to increase our revenue or manage our expenses could prevent us from achieving profitability at all or on a consistent basis, which would cause our business, financial condition and results of operations to suffer.

We may be required to recognize goodwill, intangible assets or other long-lived asset impairment charges.

Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized and are subject to impairment testing at least annually. Future events may cause impairments of our goodwill or long-lived assets based on factors such as the price of our common stock, projected cash flows, assumptions used or other variables.

In addition, if we divest long-lived assets at prices below their asset value, we must write them down to fair value resulting in long-lived asset impairment charges, which could adversely affect our financial position or results of operations. We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any impairment of assets, and we may be required to recognize goodwill or other asset impairment charges which could materially and adversely affect our results of operations. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, for further discussion.

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Our results of operations have historically varied and may fluctuate significantly, which could make our future results difficult to predict and could cause our results of operations to fall below investor or analyst expectations.

Our results of operations may fluctuate due to a variety of factors, including many of the risks described in this section, many of which are outside of our control. Many of these factors outside our control could result in increased costs, decreases in the amount of expected revenue and diversion of management’s time and energy, which could materially and adversely impact our business. Our period-to-period results of operations are not necessarily an indication of our future operating performance. In addition, in calculating Non-GAAP Net Income (Loss), we utilize estimates of our net effective tax rate, which may fluctuate based on a number of factors, including tax law changes and the geographic distribution of our profits and losses. As a result, our calculation of Non-GAAP Net Income (Loss) could change from period to period, including due to factors not tied to our financial performance. Furthermore, our revenue, gross margins and profitability in any given period are dependent partially on the service, customer and geographic mix reflected in the respective period. Variations in cost structure and gross margins across business units and services may lead to operating profit volatility on an annual and quarterly basis. Fluctuations in our revenue can lead to even greater fluctuations in our results of operations. Our budgeted expense levels depend in part on our expectations of long-term future revenue. Given the fixed nature of certain operating costs related to our personnel and facilities, any substantial adjustment to our expenses to account for lower than expected levels of revenue will be difficult. Consequently, if our revenue does not meet projected levels, our operating expenses would be high relative to our revenue, which would negatively affect our operating performance. If our revenue or operating results do not meet or exceed the expectations of investors or securities analysts, the price of our common stock may decline.

We may not be able to compete successfully against current and future competitors.

The market for our services is highly competitive, quickly evolving and subject to rapid changes in technology. We expect to continue to face intense competition from our existing competitors as well as additional competition from new market entrants in the future as the market for our services continues to grow.

Our current and potential competitors vary by size, service offerings and geographic region. These competitors may elect to partner with each other or with focused companies to grow their businesses. They include:

in-house IT departments of our customers and potential customers;
traditional global IT systems integrators, including large multi-national providers, such as Accenture, Atos, Capgemini, Cognizant, Deloitte, DXC Technology and IBM;
cloud service providers and digital systems integrators;
regional managed services providers; and
colocation solutions providers, such as Equinix, CyrusOne and QTS.
The primary competitive factors in our market are: focus on the cloud, technology and service expertise, customer experience, speed of innovation, strength of relationships with technology partners, automation and scalability, standardized operational processes, geographic reach, brand recognition and reputation and price.

Many of our current and potential competitors have substantially greater financial, technical and marketing resources; relationships with large vendor partners; larger global presence; larger customer bases; longer operating histories; greater brand recognition; and more established relationships in the industry than we do. As a result, some of these competitors may be able to:

develop superior products or services, gain greater market acceptance and expand their service offerings more efficiently or more rapidly;
adapt to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements more quickly;
bundle their offerings, including hosting services, with other services they provide at reduced prices;
streamline their operational structure, obtain better pricing or secure more favorable contractual terms, allowing them to deliver services and products at a lower cost;
take advantage of acquisition, joint venture and other opportunities more readily;
adopt more aggressive pricing policies and devote greater resources to the promotion, marketing and sales of their services, which could cause us to have to lower prices for certain services to remain competitive in the market; and
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devote greater resources to the R&D of their products and services.

To the extent we face increased price competition, we may have to lower the prices of certain of our services in the future to stay competitive, while simultaneously seeking to maintain or improve our revenue and gross margin.

In addition, consolidation activity through strategic mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures may result in new competitors that can offer a broader range of products and services, may have greater scale or a lower cost structure. To the extent such consolidation results in the ability of vertically-integrated companies to offer more integrated services to customers than we can, customers may prefer the single-source approach and direct more business to such competitors, thereby impairing our competitive position. Furthermore, new entrants not currently considered to be competitors may enter the market through acquisitions, partnerships or strategic relationships. As we look to market and sell our services to potential customers, we must convince their internal stakeholders that our services are superior to their current solutions. If we are unable to anticipate or react to these competitive challenges, our competitive position would weaken, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We may from time to time enter into strategic relationships with one or more of our competitors. By way of example, we have non-exclusive managed service provider relationships with AWS, Microsoft and Google and have entered into agreements with colocation service providers to provide us with colocation space.

Our business is highly dependent on our ability to maintain favorable relationships with our third-party cloud infrastructure providers and the ability of those third-party cloud infrastructure providers to provide the services and features that our customers desire.

We have non-exclusive managed service provider relationships with AWS, Microsoft and Google. Some of our customers first select their cloud infrastructure platform provider and then engage us to provide the managed services for the selected platform and, more often than not, we resell the cloud infrastructure to the customer (although some customers may elect to purchase the cloud infrastructure directly from the providers). Our agreements with AWS, Microsoft and Google may be terminated at will by the counterparty. If we are unable to maintain these relationships on favorable terms, or at all, we may not be able to retain our current customers or attract new customers, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, if our cloud infrastructure providers are unable to provide the types of services and features that meet customer needs, our customers may migrate to alternative cloud infrastructure providers that we may not have the ability to resell and/or support or may not be able to support on a competitive cost structure, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on our relationships with third-party cloud infrastructure providers to help drive revenue to our business. Most of these providers offer services that are complementary to our services; however, some may compete with us in one or more of our service offerings. These providers may decide in the future to terminate their agreements with us and/or to market and sell a competitor’s or their own services rather than ours, which could cause our revenue to decline. Also, we derive tangible and intangible benefits from our association with some of these providers, particularly high-profile providers that reach a large number of companies through the Internet. If a substantial number of these providers terminate their relationship with us, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our referral and reseller partners provide revenue to our business, and we benefit from our association with them. The loss of these participants could adversely affect our business.

Our referral and reseller partners drive revenue to our business. Most of these partners offer services that are complementary to our services; however, some may actually compete with us in one or more of our service offerings. These referral and reseller partners may decide in the future to terminate their agreements with us and/or to market and sell a competitor’s or their own services rather than ours, which could cause our revenue to decline. Also, we derive tangible and intangible benefits from our association with some of our referral and reseller partners, particularly high-profile partners that reach a large number of companies through the Internet. If a substantial number of these partners terminate their relationships with us, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

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We also receive payments and credits from some of our referral and reseller partners, including consideration under volume incentive programs and shared marketing expense programs. Our referral and reseller partners may decide to terminate or reduce the benefits under their incentive programs, or change the conditions under which we may obtain such benefits, and we may fail to achieve the volumes on which our forecasts for incentive payments and credits are based. Any sizable reduction, termination or significant delay in receiving benefits under these programs could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. If we are unable to timely react to any changes in our referral and reseller partners’ programs, such as the elimination of funding for some of the activities for which we have been compensated in the past, such changes could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If we fail to hire and retain qualified employees and management personnel, our strategies and our business could be harmed.

Our ability to be successful and to execute on our strategies depends on our ability to identify, hire, train and retain qualified executives, IT professionals, technical engineers, software developers, operations employees and sales and senior management personnel who maintain relationships with our customers and who can provide the technical, strategic and marketing skills required for our company to grow. Our ability to execute on our sales strategy is also dependent on our ability to identify, hire, train and retain a sufficient number of qualified sales personnel. There is a shortage of qualified personnel in these fields, and like many other companies we have recently encountered additional challenges in hiring and retaining qualified personnel. We compete with other companies for this limited pool of potential employees. Furthermore, the implementation of our strategies will result in changes throughout our business, which may create uncertainty for our employees. Such uncertainties may impair our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel and could cause customers, suppliers and others who deal with us to seek to change existing business relationships. In addition, the industry in which we operate is generally characterized by significant competition for skilled personnel, and as our industry becomes more competitive, it could become especially difficult to retain personnel with unique in-demand skills and knowledge, whom we would expect to become recruiting targets for our competitors. There is no assurance that we will be able to recruit or retain qualified personnel or successfully transition knowledge from departing employees, and this failure could cause a dilution of our service-oriented culture and our inability to develop and deliver existing or new operations and services, which could cause our business to be negatively impacted.

Security breaches, cyber-attacks and other interruptions to our or our third-party service providers’ infrastructure have disrupted and may continue to disrupt our internal operations and we may be exposed to claims and liability, lose customers, suffer harm to our reputation, lose business-critical compliance certifications and incur additional costs.

We are materially dependent upon our networks, information technology infrastructure and related technology systems to provide services to our customers and to manage our internal operations. Many of our customers require access to our services on a continuous basis and may be materially impaired by interruptions in our or our third-party service providers’ infrastructure. The services we offer also involve the transmission of large amounts of sensitive and proprietary information over public communications networks, as well as the processing and storage of confidential customer information, which may include information subject to stringent domestic and foreign data protection laws, including those governing personally identifiable information, protected health information or other types of sensitive data. We also process, store and transmit our own data as part of our business and operations, which may include personally identifiable, confidential or proprietary information.

Cyber-attacks have become more prevalent in our industry, and the techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems are constantly expanding and evolving. Malicious actors are increasingly sophisticated in their methods, tactics, techniques and procedures, seeking to steal money, gain unauthorized access to, destroy or manipulate data, and disrupt operations, and some of their attacks may not be recognized or discovered until launched or after initial entry into the environment, such as novel or zero-day attacks that are launched before patches are available and defenses can be readied. Malicious actors are also increasingly developing methods to avoid prevention, detection and alerting capabilities, including employing counter-forensic tactics, making response activities more difficult. Like many companies, we have experienced these attacks, including a ransomware incident that caused service disruptions for our Hosted Exchange customers, as announced on December 6, 2022 and again on December 9, 2022. When these cyber-attacks occur, we respond to these incidents pursuant to our Cybersecurity Policies and Procedures and in accordance with the law. Our Cybersecurity Policies and Procedures are designed to protect against and mitigate harm from unauthorized access, infrastructure attacks, malicious file attacks, ransomware, data theft, bugs, worms, malicious software programs, remnant data exposure, computer viruses, denial-of-service attacks, accidents, employee error or malfeasance, intentional misconduct by computer “hackers,” state-sponsored cyber-attacks and attempts by outside parties to fraudulently induce our employees or customers to disclose or
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grant access to our data or our customers’ data. Our current cybersecurity framework is governed and overseen by the Chief Security Officer. Cybersecurity risks and security measures are reported to our board of directors, who collectively have years of cybersecurity experience, at least on an annual basis. When necessary, our internal incident response team engages with external advisors, including outside counsel or outside cybersecurity firms to investigate and remediate.

Our current security measures are being monitored and periodically reviewed. Nevertheless, our security measures have in the past and may continue to be circumvented or fail to defeat or mitigate these attacks. Additionally, other disruptions can occur, such as infrastructure gaps, hardware and software vulnerabilities, inadequate or missing security controls, exposed or unprotected customer data and the accidental or intentional disclosure of source code or other confidential information by former or current employees. Any such incidents could (i) interfere with the delivery of services to our customers, (ii) impede our customers’ ability to do business, (iii) compromise the security of infrastructure, systems and data, (iv) lead to the dissemination to third parties of proprietary information or sensitive, personal, or confidential data about us, our employees or our customers, including personally identifiable information of individuals involved with our customers and their end users and (v) impact our ability to do business in the ordinary course. Each of these risks could further intensify as we maintain information in digital form stored on servers connected to the Internet, especially in light of the growing frequency, scope and well-documented sophistication of cyber-attacks and intrusions. Some of our systems or vendors’ systems have experienced past security breaches, and, although they did not have a material adverse effect on our operating results, there can be no assurance of a similar result in the future. Cyber breaches and other security incidents may expose us to increased risk of claims and liability, including litigation, regulatory enforcement, notification obligations and indemnity obligations, as well as loss of existing or potential customers, harm to our reputation, increases in our security costs (including spending material resources to investigate or correct the breach or incident and to prevent future security breaches and incidents), disruption of normal business operations, the impairment or loss of industry certifications and government sanctions (including debarment), all of which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The security of our services is important in our customers’ decisions to purchase or use our services. Threats to our infrastructure may not only affect the data that we own but also the data belonging to our customers. When customers use our services, they rely on the security of our infrastructure, including hardware and other elements provided by third parties, to ensure the reliability of our services and the protection of their data. We also offer professional services to our customers where we consult on data center solutions and assist with implementations. We offer managed services domestically and in some jurisdictions outside of the U.S. where we manage the data center infrastructure for our customers. An actual or perceived breach of, or other security incident relating to, our cloud storage systems and networks could result in significant loss. In the event of a claim, we could be liable for substantial damage awards that may significantly exceed our liability insurance coverage by unknown but significant amounts, which could have a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, we cannot be certain that our insurance coverage will cover any claims against us relating to any such incident, will continue to be available to us on economically reasonable terms, or at all, or that our insurers will not deny coverage as to any such claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations. The costs could be exacerbated by regulatory fines and penalties, notification costs and the loss of revenue due to brand and reputational harm.

Similar security risks exist with respect to our business partners and the third-party vendors that we rely on for aspects of our IT support services and administrative functions, including the systems owned, operated or controlled by other unaffiliated operators to the extent we rely on such other systems to deliver services to our customers. Our Cybersecurity Policies and Procedures are designed to vet third-party providers and provide for adequate oversight and cooperation regarding cybersecurity incidents with respect to our third-party vendors, but our ability to monitor our third-party service providers’ data security is limited. As a result, we are subject to the risk that cyber-attacks on, or other security incidents affecting, our business partners and third-party vendors may adversely affect our business even if an attack or breach does not directly impact our systems. It is also possible that security breaches sustained by, or other security incidents affecting, our competitors could result in negative publicity for our entire industry that indirectly harms our reputation and diminishes demand for our services.

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In addition, our customers require and expect that we maintain industry-related compliance certifications, such as International Organization for Standardization ("ISO") 27001, Service Organization Controls ("SOC 1, 2, 3") and Payment Card Industry ("PCI"), Federal Information Security Management Act ("FISMA"), Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program ("FedRAMP") and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act ("HIPAA") in the U.S., Information Security Registered Assessors Program ("IRAP") in Australia and Public Services Network ("PSN") in the U.K. There are significant costs associated with maintaining existing and implementing any newly-adopted industry-related compliance certifications, including costs associated with retroactively building security controls into services which may involve re-engineering technology, processes and staffing. The inability to maintain applicable compliance certifications could result in monetary fines, disruptive participation in forensic audits due to a breach, security-related control failures, customer contract breaches, customer churn and brand and reputational harm.

Our inability to prevent service disruptions and ensure network uptime could lead to significant costs and could harm our business reputation and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our value proposition to customers is highly dependent on the ability of our existing and potential customers to access our services and platform capabilities at any time and within an acceptable amount of time. We have experienced interruptions in service in the past and may in the future experience service interruptions due to such things as power outages, power equipment failures, cooling equipment failures, network connectivity downtime, routing problems, security issues, hard drive failures, database corruption, system failures, natural disasters, software failures, human and software errors, denial-of-service attacks and other computer failures. Because our ability to attract and retain customers depends on our ability to provide customers with highly reliable service, even minor interruptions in our service could harm our reputation.

Because our service offerings do not require geographic proximity of our data centers to our customers, our infrastructure is consolidated into a few large facilities. Accordingly, any failure or downtime in one of our data center facilities could affect a significant percentage of our customers. The total destruction or severe impairment of any of our data center facilities could result in significant downtime of our services and the loss of customer data. In addition, it may become increasingly difficult to maintain and improve our performance, especially during peak usage times and as our services and platform capabilities become more complex and our user traffic increases. To the extent that our facilities fail or experience downtime or we do not effectively upgrade our systems as needed or continually develop our technology and network architecture to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected. Service interruptions continue to be a significant risk for us and could materially and adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Any future service interruptions could:

cause our customers to seek damages for losses incurred;
delay payment to us by customers;
result in legal claims against us;
divert our resources;
require us to replace existing equipment or add redundant facilities;
affect our reputation as a reliable provider of hosting services;
cause existing customers to cancel or elect to not renew their contracts; or
make it more difficult for us to attract new customers.

Our customer agreements include certain service level commitments to our customers relating primarily to network uptime, critical infrastructure availability and hardware replacement. If we are unable to meet the stated service level commitments, we may be contractually obligated to provide these customers with service credits for a portion of the service fees paid by our customers. As a result, a failure to deliver services for a relatively short duration could cause us to issue these credits to a large number of affected customers. In addition, we cannot be assured that our customers will accept these credits in lieu of other legal remedies that may be available to them. Our failure to meet our commitments could also result in substantial customer dissatisfaction or loss. Our failure to meet our service level commitments to our customers could lead to future loss of revenues and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our ability to operate our data centers relies on access to sufficient and reliable electric power.

Since our data centers rely on third parties to provide power sufficient to meet operational needs, our data centers could have a limited or inadequate amount of electrical resources necessary to meet our customer requirements. We and other data center operators attempt to limit exposure to system downtime due to power outages by using backup generators and power supplies. However, these protections may not limit our exposure to power shortages or outages entirely. Any system downtime resulting from insufficient power resources or power outages could cause physical damage to equipment, increase our susceptibility to security breaches, damage our reputation and lead us to lose current and potential customers, which would harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Failure to have reliable Internet, telecommunications and fiber optic network connectivity and capacity may adversely affect our results of operations.

Our success depends in part upon the capacity, reliability and performance of our network infrastructure, including our Internet, telecommunications and fiber optic network connectivity providers. We depend on these companies to provide uninterrupted and error-free service through their telecommunications networks. Some of these providers are also our competitors. We exercise little control over these providers, which increases our vulnerability to problems with the services they provide. We have experienced and expect to continue to experience interruptions or delays in network service. Any failure on our part or the part of our third-party suppliers to achieve or maintain high data transmission capacity, reliability or performance could significantly reduce customer demand for our services and have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We also can provide no assurances that our redundancy planning will be effective.

As our customers’ usage of telecommunications capacity increases, we will be required to make additional investments in our capacity to maintain adequate data transmission speeds, the availability of which may be limited or the cost of which may be on terms unacceptable to us. If adequate capacity is not available to us as our customers’ usage increases, our network may be unable to achieve or maintain sufficiently high data transmission capacity, reliability or performance. In addition, our business and results of operations would suffer if our network suppliers increased the prices for their services and we were unable to successfully pass along the increased costs to our customers.

We have overestimated our data center capacity requirements in the past. If we overestimate or underestimate our data center capacity requirements, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

The costs of building out, leasing and maintaining our data centers constitute a significant portion of our capital and operating expenses. To manage our capacity while minimizing unnecessary excess capacity costs, we continuously evaluate our short and long-term data center capacity requirements, and we have overestimated our data center capacity requirements in the past. However, many of the data center sites that we lease are subject to long-term leases. If our capacity needs are reduced, or if we decide to close a data center, we may nonetheless be committed to perform our obligations under the applicable leases including, among other things, paying the base rent for the balance of the lease term. Moreover, as a result of changing technological trends, we have seen customer demand shift towards our offerings provided on the infrastructure of a third-party cloud infrastructure provider, which reduces our data center capacity needs. In addition, the solutions we offer and our customer-based approach may encourage our customers to move to the public cloud, which may reduce our data center capacity needs. If we overestimate our data center capacity requirements and therefore secure excess data center capacity, our operating margins could be materially reduced. If we underestimate our data center capacity requirements, we may not be able to service the expanding needs of our existing customers and may be required to limit new customer acquisition or enter into leases that are not optimal, both of which may materially and adversely impair our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our customer solutions, software or technology could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Undetected real or perceived errors, failures, bugs or defects may be present or occur in the future in our customer solutions, software or technology or the technology or software we license from third parties, including open source software. Despite testing by us, real or perceived errors, failures, bugs or defects may not be found until our customers use our services. Real or perceived errors, failures, bugs or defects in our customer solutions could result in negative publicity, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our services and harm to our brand, weakening of our competitive position, claims by customers for losses sustained by them or failure to meet the stated service level commitments in our customer agreements. In such an event, we may be required, or may choose, for customer relations or other reasons, to expend significant additional resources in order to help correct the problem. Any real or perceived errors, failures, bugs or defects in our customer solutions could also impair our ability to attract new customers, retain existing customers or expand their use of our services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on third-party software that may be difficult to replace, or which could cause errors or failures of our service that could lead to lost customers or harm to our reputation.

We rely on software licensed from third parties to offer our services. This software may not continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. Any loss of the right to use any of this software could result in delays in the provisioning of our services until equivalent technology is either developed by us, or, if available, is identified, obtained and integrated, which could harm our business, and there is no guarantee that we would be successful in developing, identifying, obtaining or integrating equivalent or similar technology, which could result in the loss or limiting of our services or features available in our services. Any errors or defects in third-party software or inadequate or delayed support by our third-party licensors could result in errors or a failure of our service, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

If our third-party vendors, including our third-party software licensors, increase their prices and we are unable to pass those increased costs to our customers, it could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

If third-party vendors increase their prices and we are unable to successfully pass those costs on to our customers, it could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations. Many of our contracts with our customers give us the flexibility to increase our prices from time to time; however, notwithstanding our contractual right to do so, raising prices may decrease the demand for our services, cause customers to terminate their existing relationships with us or limit our ability to attract new customers. Our attempts to otherwise mitigate cost increases or achieve cost reductions can also cause disruptions and operational impacts in the near- and medium-term, including increased costs and distraction of management attention.

Our services depend in part on intellectual property and proprietary rights and technology licensed from third parties.

Much of our business and many of our services rely on key technologies developed or licensed by third parties. For example, we sell or otherwise provide licenses to use third-party software in connection with the sale of some of our managed service partner offerings. These third-party software components may become obsolete, defective or incompatible with future versions of our services, or relationships with the third-party licensors may deteriorate, or our agreements with the third-party licensors may expire or be terminated. Additionally, some of these licenses may not be available to us in the future on terms that are acceptable or that allow our service offerings to remain competitive. Our inability to obtain licenses or rights on favorable terms could have a material and adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Furthermore, incorporating intellectual property or proprietary rights licensed from third parties on a non-exclusive basis in our services could limit our ability to protect the intellectual property and proprietary rights in our services and our ability to restrict third parties from developing, selling or otherwise providing similar or competitive technology using the same third-party intellectual property or proprietary rights.

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Sales to enterprise customers involve risks that may not be present in or that are present to a greater extent than sales to smaller entities.

We continue to focus a significant portion of our sales efforts on enterprise customers. Sales to such customers generally have longer sales cycles, more complex customer requirements, substantial upfront sales costs and contract terms that are less favorable to us, including as it relates to pricing and limitations on liability. A number of factors influence the length and variability of our sales cycle, including the need to educate potential customers about the uses and benefits of our solutions, the discretionary nature of purchasing and budget cycles and the competitive nature of evaluation and purchasing approval processes. As a result, the length of our sales cycle, from identification of the opportunity to deal closure, may vary significantly from customer to customer, with sales to large enterprises typically taking longer to complete.

Some of our professional services engagements with our clients are based on estimated pricing terms. If our estimates are incorrect, these terms could become unprofitable.

Some of our customer contracts for professional services are fixed-price contracts to which we commit before we provide services to these clients. In pricing such fixed-price client contracts, we are required to make estimates and assumptions at the time we enter into these contracts that could differ from actual results. As a result, the profit that is anticipated at a contract’s inception is not guaranteed. Our estimates reflect our best judgments about the nature of the engagement and our expected costs in providing the contracted services. However, any increased or unexpected costs or any unanticipated delays in connection with our performance of these engagements, including delays caused by our third-party providers or by factors outside our control, could make these contracts less profitable or unprofitable and could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

If we fail to maintain, enhance and protect our brand, our ability to expand our customer base will be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.

We believe that maintaining, enhancing and protecting our brand is important to support the marketing and sale of our existing and future services to new customers and expand sales of our services to existing customers. We also believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successfully maintaining, enhancing and protecting our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, our ability to provide reliable services that continue to meet the needs of our customers at competitive prices, our ability to maintain our customers’ trust, our ability to successfully differentiate our services and platform capabilities from competitive services and our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce trademark and other intellectual property protection for our brand. Our brand promotion activities may not generate customer awareness or yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses incurred in building and maintaining our brand. If we fail to successfully promote, maintain and protect our brand, our business, financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected.

Our ability to operate and expand our business is susceptible to risks associated with international sales and operations.

We have operations across the globe. We anticipate that a significant portion of our revenue will continue to be derived from sources outside of the U.S. A key element of our strategy is to further expand our customer base internationally and successfully operate data centers in foreign markets. Managing a global organization is difficult, time consuming and expensive. If we are unable to manage the risks of our global operations and geographic expansion strategy, our business, results of operations and ability to grow could be materially and adversely affected. In addition, conducting international operations subjects us to new risks that we have not generally faced. These risks include:

localization of our services, including translation into foreign languages and adapting to local practices and regulatory requirements and differing technology standards or customer requirements;
lack of familiarity with and unexpected changes in foreign regulatory requirements;
longer accounts receivable payment cycles and difficulties in collecting accounts receivable;
difficulties in managing and staffing international operations;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
restrictions on the ability to move cash;
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potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of transfer pricing and foreign value added tax systems;
challenges associated with repatriating earnings generated or held abroad in a tax-efficient manner and changes in tax laws;
dependence on certain third parties, including channel partners with whom we do not have extensive experience;
the burdens of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws and legal standards;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
trade regulations and procedures and actions affecting production, pricing and marketing of services, including policies adopted by countries that may champion or otherwise favor domestic companies and technologies over foreign competitors;
political, social and economic instability and corruption abroad, terrorist attacks, civil unrest and security concerns in general;
pandemics and public health emergencies, such as COVID-19; and
reduced or varied protection for intellectual property and proprietary rights in some countries.

Operating in international markets also requires significant management attention and financial resources. The investment and additional resources required to establish operations and manage growth in other countries may not produce desired levels of revenue or profitability.

Failure to develop and maintain adequate internal systems could cause us to be unable to properly provide service to our customers, causing us to lose customers, suffer harm to our reputation and incur additional costs.

Some of our enterprise systems have been designed to support individual service offerings, resulting in a lack of standardization among various internal systems, tools and processes across products, platforms, services, functions and geographies, making it difficult to serve customers who use multiple service offerings. This lack of standardization causes us to implement manual processes to overcome the fragmentation, which can result in increased expense and manual errors.

We continually seek to drive efficiencies in our infrastructure and business processes. Our inability to manage competing priorities, execute multiple concurrent projects, plan and manage resources effectively and meet deadlines and budgets could result in us not being able to implement the systems needed to speed up implementation of customer solutions and deliver our services in a compelling manner to our customers. If we are unable to drive efficiencies in our infrastructure and business processes, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

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We may not be able to renew the leases on our existing facilities on terms acceptable to us, if at all, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We do not own the facilities occupied by our current data centers but occupy them pursuant to commercial leasing arrangements. The initial terms of our main existing data center leases expire over the next 16 years. Upon the expiration or termination of our data center facility leases, we may not be able to renew these leases on terms acceptable to us, if at all. Even if we are able to renew the leases on our existing data centers, we expect that rental rates, which will be determined based on then-prevailing market rates with respect to the renewal option periods and which will be determined by negotiation with the landlord after the renewal option periods, will be higher than rates we currently pay under our existing lease agreements. Migrations to new facilities could also be expensive and present technical challenges that may result in downtime for our affected customers or loss of data. There can also be no assurances that our plans to mitigate customer downtime for affected customers will be successful. This could damage our reputation and lead us to lose current and potential customers, which could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We rely on a number of third-party providers for data center space, equipment, maintenance and other services, and the loss of, or problems with, one or more of these providers may impede our growth or cause us to lose customers.

We rely on third-party providers to supply data center space, equipment and maintenance. For example, we lease data center space from third-party landlords, purchase equipment from equipment providers and source equipment maintenance through third parties. While we have entered into various agreements for the lease of data center space, equipment, maintenance and other services, a third-party could fail to comply with their contractual obligations under those agreements. For example, a data center landlord may fail to adequately maintain its facilities or provide an appropriate data center infrastructure for which it is responsible. If that were to happen, we would not likely be able to deliver the services to our customers that we have agreed to provide according to our standards or at all. Additionally, if the third parties that we rely on fail to deliver on their obligations, our customers may lose confidence in our company, which would make it likely that we would not be able to retain those customers, and could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to various laws, directives, regulations, contractual obligations and policies regarding the protection of confidentiality and appropriate use of personal information.

We are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws, directives and regulations, as well as contractual obligations and policies, relating to the collection, use, retention, security, disclosure, transfer and other processing of information, including sensitive, proprietary, healthcare, financial and personal information. The regulatory framework for privacy and security issues worldwide is complex and rapidly evolving and as a result, implementation standards and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Any failure by us, our suppliers or other parties with whom we do business to comply with our contractual commitments, policies or with federal, state, local or international regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. In many jurisdictions, enforcement actions and consequences for noncompliance are rising. In the U.S., these include enforcement actions in response to rules and regulations promulgated under the authority of federal agencies, state attorneys general and legislatures and consumer protection agencies. In addition, security advocates and industry groups have regularly proposed, and may propose in the future, self-regulatory standards with which we must legally comply or that contractually apply to us. If we fail to follow these security standards even if no personal information is compromised, we may incur significant fines or experience a significant increase in costs.

Internationally, virtually every jurisdiction in which we operate has established its own data security and privacy legal framework with which we or our customers must comply, including but not limited to the U.K. and the E.U. The E.U. has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation ("E.U. GDPR"), which went into effect in May 2018, and together with national legislation, regulations and guidelines of the E.U. member states, contains numerous requirements and changes from previously existing E.U. law, including the increased jurisdictional reach of the European Commission, more robust obligations on data processors and additional requirements for data protection compliance programs by companies. E.U. member states are tasked under the E.U. GDPR to enact, and have enacted, certain legislation that adds to and/or further interprets the E.U. GDPR requirements and potentially extends our obligations and potential liability for failing to meet such obligations. Among other requirements, the E.U. GDPR regulates transfers of personal data subject to the E.U. GDPR to the U.S. as well as other third countries that have not been found to provide adequate protection to such personal data. While we have taken steps to mitigate the impact on us with respect to transfers of data, such as implementing standard contractual clauses, the efficacy and longevity of these transfer mechanisms remains uncertain. Following Brexit, the U.K. enacted a Data Protection Act substantially implementing the GDPR and amended to align with the E.U. GDPR. It is unclear how U.K.
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data protection laws or regulations will develop in the medium to longer term. We must comply with the E.U. GDPR and the U.K. GDPR, with each regime having the ability to fine up to the greater of €20 million (in the case of the E.U. GDPR) or £17 million (in the case of the U.K. GDPR) and 4% of total annual revenue. Such penalties are in addition to any civil litigation claims by customers and data subjects. The GDPR requirements apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between us and our subsidiaries, including employee information.

Non-compliance with relevant data privacy laws, directives and regulations, such as the E.U. or U.K. GDPR, could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities, customers, data subjects or others. We may also experience difficulty retaining or obtaining new European or multi-national customers due to the legal requirements, compliance cost, potential risk exposure and uncertainty for these entities, and we may experience significantly increased liability with respect to these customers pursuant to the terms set forth in our engagements with them.

Domestic laws in this area are also complex and developing rapidly. Many state legislatures have adopted legislation that regulates how businesses operate online, including measures relating to privacy, data security and data breaches, and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and the Federal Trade Commission, have adopted, or are considering adopting, laws and regulations concerning personal information and data security. In addition, laws in all 50 states require businesses to provide notice to customers whose personally identifiable information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. The laws are not consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is costly. States are also constantly amending existing laws, requiring attention to frequently changing regulatory requirements.

Because the interpretation and application of many privacy and data protection laws along with contractually imposed industry standards are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our services and platform capabilities. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits, regulatory investigations, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, other claims and penalties, significant costs for remediation and damage to our reputation, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our services and platform capabilities, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business.

In addition, our board of directors has adopted a code of conduct that applies to all of our directors, officers and employees which, among other things, sets forth our policies regarding the protection of customer, third party, proprietary and confidential information. We also make public statements about our use and disclosure of personal information through information provided on our website, press statements and our privacy policies, and we have a Chief Privacy Officer that oversees our compliance with these policies. Although we endeavor to comply with our public statements and documentation, including our code of conduct and privacy policies, we may at times fail to do so or be alleged to have failed to do so. The publication of our privacy policies and other statements that provide promises and assurances about data privacy and security can subject us to potential government or legal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair or misrepresentative of our actual practices.

Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, regulations, contractual obligations and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales and have a material and adverse effect on our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the laws, regulations, contractual obligations and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our customers may limit the use and adoption of, and reduce the overall demand for, our services. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our services, particularly in certain industries and foreign countries. If we are not able to adjust to changing laws, regulations and standards related to the Internet, our business may be harmed.

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Customers could potentially expose us to lawsuits for their lost profits or damages, which could impair our results of operations.

Because our services are critical to many of our customers’ businesses, any significant disruption in our services could result in lost profits or other indirect or consequential damages to our customers. Although we generally require our customers to sign agreements that contain provisions attempting to limit our liability for service outages, we cannot be assured that a court would enforce any contractual limitations on our liability in the event that one of our customers brings a lawsuit against us as the result of a service interruption or other Internet site or application problems that they may ascribe to us. The outcome of any such lawsuit would depend on the specific facts of the case and any legal and policy considerations that we may not be able to mitigate. In such cases, we could be liable for substantial damage awards that may exceed our insurance coverage by unknown but significant amounts, which could materially and adversely impair our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our clients include national, provincial, state and local governmental entities.

Our government work carries various risks inherent in the government contracting process. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:

Government entities typically fund projects through appropriated monies and demand is affected by public sector budgetary cycles and funding authorizations. While these projects are often planned and executed as multi-year projects, government entities usually reserve the right to change the scope of or terminate these projects for lack of approved funding and/or at their convenience, which also could limit our recovery of incurred costs, reimbursable expenses and profits on work completed prior to the termination.
Government contracts are subject to heightened reputational and contractual risks compared to contracts with commercial clients. For example, government contracts and the proceedings surrounding them are often subject to more extensive scrutiny and publicity. Negative publicity, including an allegation of improper or illegal activity, regardless of its accuracy, or challenges to government contracts awarded to us, may adversely affect our reputation.
Government contracts can be challenged by other interested parties and such challenges, even if unsuccessful, can increase costs, cause delays and defer project implementation and revenue recognition.
Terms and conditions of government contracts also tend to be more onerous and are often more difficult to negotiate. For example, these contracts often contain high liability for breaches and feature less favorable payment terms and sometimes require us to take on liability for the performance of third parties.
Political and economic factors such as pending elections, the outcome of elections, changes in leadership among key executive or legislative decision makers, revisions to governmental tax or other policies and reduced tax revenues can affect the number and terms of new government contracts signed or the speed at which new contracts are signed, decrease future levels of spending and authorizations for programs that we bid, shift spending priorities to programs in areas for which we do not provide services and/or lead to changes in enforcement or how compliance with relevant rules or laws is assessed.
If a government client discovers improper or illegal activities during audits or investigations, we may become subject to various civil and criminal penalties, including those under the civil U.S. False Claims Act and administrative sanctions, which may include termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions or debarment from doing business with other agencies of that government. The inherent limitations of internal controls may not prevent or detect all improper or illegal activities.
U.S. government contracting regulations impose strict compliance and disclosure obligations. Disclosure is required if certain company personnel have knowledge of “credible evidence” of a violation of federal criminal laws involving fraud, conflict of interest, bribery or improper gratuity, a violation of the civil U.S. False Claims Act or receipt of a significant overpayment from the government. Failure to make required disclosures could be a basis for suspension and/or debarment from federal government contracting in addition to breach of the specific contract and could also impact contracting beyond the U.S. federal level. Reported matters also could lead to audits or investigations and other civil, criminal or administrative sanctions. In addition, contracting with Federal government bodies may subject us to operational requirements or prohibitions which would increase our compliance costs or increase the risk of non-compliance.

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The occurrences or conditions described above could affect not only our business with the government entities involved, but also our business with other entities of the same or other governmental bodies or with certain commercial clients and could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations.

In addition, the success of our government solutions business is highly dependent on our FISMA and FedRAMP certifications which evidence our ability to meet certain federal government security compliance requirements. Failure to maintain the FedRAMP certification would result in a breach in many of our government contracts, which in turn, could subject us to liability and result in reputational harm and customer and employee attrition. Further, government contracts are increasingly requiring that FedRAMP-authorized service offerings be hosted on public cloud infrastructure. In the event that we are unable to expand the scope of our FedRAMP-authorized service offerings accordingly, it may impair our ability to successfully bid on government contracts.

Our operations and operations of our third-party channel partners in countries outside of the U.S. are subject to a number of anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal or civil liability and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We operate internationally and must comply with complex foreign and U.S. laws including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, which prohibit engaging in certain activities to obtain or retain business or to influence a person working in an official capacity. We must also comply with economic and trade sanctions administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”) and the U.S. Commerce Department based on U.S. foreign policy and national security goals against targeted foreign states, organizations and individuals, as well as other anti-corruption and anti-money laundering laws in the countries in which we conduct activities. We do business and may in the future do additional business in countries and regions in which we may face, directly or indirectly, corrupt demands by officials or by private entities in which corrupt offers are expected. Furthermore, many of our operations require us to use third parties to conduct business or to interact with people who are deemed to be governmental officials under the FCPA. Thus, we face the risk of unauthorized payments or offers of payments or other things of value by our employees, contractors or agents. While it is our policy to implement compliance procedures to prohibit these practices, our due diligence policy and the procedures we undertake may not sufficiently vet our third-party channel partners for these risks prior to entering into a contractual relationship with them. As a result, despite our policies and any safeguards and any future improvements made to them, our employees, contractors, third-party channel partners and agents may engage in conduct for which we might be held responsible, regardless of whether such conduct occurs within or outside the U.S. We may also be held responsible for any violations by an acquired company that occurs prior to an acquisition, or subsequent to the acquisition but before we are able to institute our compliance procedures. A violation of any of these laws, even if prohibited by our policies, may result in severe criminal and/or civil sanctions and other penalties and could have a material and adverse effect on our business.

Compliance with U.S. regulations on trade sanctions and embargoes administered by OFAC and the U.S. Commerce Department also poses a risk to us. We cannot provide services to certain countries subject to U.S. trade sanctions. Furthermore, the laws and regulations concerning import activity, export recordkeeping and reporting, export control and economic sanctions are complex and constantly changing. Any failure to comply with applicable legal and regulatory trading obligations could result in criminal and civil penalties and sanctions, such as fines, imprisonment, debarment from governmental contracts, seizure of shipments and loss of import and export privileges. For example, in 2017, prior to our acquisition of Datapipe, one of Datapipe’s European subsidiaries provided network interconnectivity and distributed denial of attack protection service to an Iranian entity subject to OFAC sanctions. Datapipe self-reported the instance to OFAC and we have taken remedial measures to safeguard against re-occurrence. If we provide services to sanctioned targets in the future in violation of applicable export laws or economic sanctions, we could be subject to government investigations, penalties and reputational harm.

Detecting, investigating and resolving actual or alleged violations of anti-corruption laws can require a significant diversion of time, resources and attention from senior management. In addition, noncompliance with anti-corruption, anti-bribery or anti-money laundering laws could subject us to whistleblower complaints, investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, enforcement actions, fines, damages, other civil or criminal penalties or injunctions, suspension or debarment from contracting with certain persons, reputational harm, adverse media coverage and other collateral consequences. If any subpoenas or investigations are launched, or governmental or other sanctions are imposed, or if we do not prevail in any possible civil or criminal proceeding, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be harmed. In addition, responding to any action will likely result in a materially significant diversion of management’s attention and resources and significant defense costs and other professional fees.
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Certain of our international operations are conducted in countries or regions experiencing corruption or instability, which subjects us to heightened legal and economic risks.

We do business and may in the future do additional business in certain countries or regions in which corruption is a serious problem. Moreover, to effectively compete in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions, it is frequently necessary or required to establish joint ventures, strategic alliances or marketing arrangements with local operators, partners or agents. In certain instances, these local operators, partners or agents may have interests that are not always aligned with ours. Reliance on local operators, partners or agents could expose us to the risk of being unable to control the scope or quality of our overseas services or being held liable under any anti-corruption laws for actions taken by our strategic or local partners or agents even though these partners or agents may not themselves be subject to such anti-corruption laws. Any determination that we have violated anti-corruption laws could have a material and adverse effect on our business, results of operations, reputation or prospects.

We may be liable for the material that content providers distribute over our network, and we may have to terminate customers that provide content that is determined to be illegal, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

The laws relating to the liability of private network operators for information carried on, stored on, or disseminated through their networks are unsettled or evolving in many jurisdictions. We have been and expect to continue to be subject to legal claims relating to the content disseminated on our network, including claims under The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, other similar legislation, regulation and common law. In addition, there are other potential customer activities, such as online gambling and pornography, where we, in our role as a hosting provider, may be held liable as an aider or abettor of our customers. If we need to take costly measures to reduce our exposure to these risks, terminate customer relationships and the associated revenue or defend ourselves against such claims, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be negatively affected.

Government regulation is continuously evolving and, depending on its evolution, may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We are subject to varying degrees of regulation in each of the jurisdictions in which we provide services. Local laws and regulations, and their interpretation and enforcement, differ significantly among those jurisdictions. These regulations and laws may cover taxation, privacy, data protection, pricing, content, intellectual property and proprietary rights, distribution, mobile communications, electronic device certification, electronic waste, electronic contracts and other communications, consumer protection, web services, the provision of online payment services, unencumbered Internet access to our services, the design and operation of websites and the characteristics and quality of services. These laws can be costly to comply with, can be a significant diversion to management’s time and effort and can subject us to claims or other remedies, as well as negative publicity. Many of these laws were adopted prior to the advent of the Internet and related technologies and, as a result, do not contemplate or address the unique issues that the Internet and related technologies currently produce. Some of the laws that do reference the Internet and related technologies have been and continue to be interpreted by the courts, but their applicability and scope remain largely uncertain.

Any failure by us to identify, manage, complete and integrate acquisitions and other significant transactions, including dispositions, successfully could harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

As part of our strategy, we expect to continue to acquire companies or businesses, enter into strategic alliances and joint ventures and make investments to further our business, both domestically and globally (“Strategic Transactions”). Risks associated with these Strategic Transactions include the following, any of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations:

If we fail to identify and successfully complete and integrate Strategic Transactions that further our strategic objectives, we may be required to expend resources to develop services and technology internally, which may put us at a competitive disadvantage.
Due to the inherent limitations in the due diligence process, we may not identify all events and circumstances that could impact the valuation or performance of a Strategic Transaction and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating and pursuing suitable opportunities, whether or not the transactions are completed.
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Managing Strategic Transactions requires varying levels of management resources, which may divert our attention from other business operations.
We have not realized all anticipated benefits, synergies and cost-savings initiatives from certain previous Strategic Transactions, and in the future, we may not fully realize all or any of the anticipated benefits of any particular Strategic Transaction.
We may be adversely impacted by liabilities that we assume from a company we acquire or in which we invest, whether known or unknown.
Our organizational structure could make it difficult for us to efficiently integrate the Strategic Transactions into our on-going operations and retain and assimilate employees of our organization or those of the acquired business. If key employees depart because of integration issues, or if customers, suppliers or others seek to change their dealings with us because of these changes, our business could be negatively impacted.
Certain previous Strategic Transactions have resulted, and in the future any such Strategic Transactions by us may result, in significant costs and expenses, including those related to severance pay, early retirement costs, employee benefit costs, charges from the elimination of duplicative facilities, other liabilities, legal, accounting and financial advisory fees and required payments to executive officers and key employees under retention plans.
We may issue equity or equity-linked securities or borrow to finance Strategic Transactions, and the amount and terms of any potential future acquisition-related or other dilutive issuance of equity or borrowings, as well as other factors, could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we may divest assets or businesses that are no longer a part of our strategy. These divestitures similarly require significant investment of time and resources, may disrupt our business and distract management from other responsibilities and may result in losses on disposition or continued financial involvement in the divested business, including through indemnification or other financial arrangements, for a period following the transaction, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our results of operations could be materially and adversely affected by fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates.

Although we report our results of operations in U.S. dollars, a significant portion of our revenue and expenses are denominated in currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Further, the majority of our customers are invoiced, and the majority of our expenses are paid, by us or our subsidiaries in the functional currency of our company or our subsidiaries, respectively. However, some of our customers are currently invoiced in currencies other than the applicable functional currency. As a result, we may incur foreign currency losses based on changes in exchange rates between the date of the invoice and the date of collection. In addition, large changes in foreign exchange rates relative to our functional currencies could increase the costs of our services to non-U.S. customers relative to local competitors, thereby causing us to lose existing or potential customers to these local competitors. Thus, our results of operations are subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Further, as we grow our international operations, our exposure to foreign currency risk could become more significant. We have entered into, and in the future we may enter into, foreign currency hedging contracts to reduce foreign currency volatility. However, we currently do not maintain foreign currency hedging contracts with respect to all our foreign currencies, and any contracts we have or may enter into may not fully mitigate our foreign currency risk, may prove disadvantageous or may create additional risks.

We are exposed to commodity and market price risks that affect our results of operations.

We consume a large quantity of power to operate our data centers and as such are exposed to risk associated with fluctuations in the price of power. During 2022, we incurred approximately $45 million in costs to power our data centers. We anticipate an increase in our consumption of power in the future if our private cloud sales grow. Power costs vary by locality and are subject to substantial seasonal fluctuations and changes in energy prices. Certain of our data centers are located within deregulated energy markets. Power costs have historically tracked the general costs of energy and continued increases in electricity costs may negatively impact our gross margins. We periodically evaluate the advisability of entering into fixed-price utilities contracts and have entered into certain fixed-price utilities contracts for some of our power consumption. If we choose not to enter into a fixed-price contract, we expose our cost structure to this commodity price risk. If we do choose to enter into a fixed-price contract, we lose the opportunity to reduce our power costs if the price for power falls below the fixed cost. Therefore, increases in our power costs could result in lower gross margins and materially and adversely impact our results of operations.
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Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change may result in environmental taxes, charges, assessments or penalties, resulting in increased electricity prices.

The effects of human activity on the global climate change have attracted considerable public and scientific attention, as well as the attention of the U.S. government. Efforts are being made to reduce greenhouse emissions, particularly those from coal combustion by power plants, some of which we rely upon for power. The added cost of any environmental taxes, charges, assessments or penalties levied on these power plants could be passed on to us, increasing the cost to run our data centers. Additionally, environmental taxes, charges, assessments or penalties could be levied directly on us in proportion to our carbon footprint. Any enactment of laws or passage of regulations regarding greenhouse gas emissions by the U.S., or any domestic or foreign jurisdiction we perform business in, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We utilize open source software in providing a substantial portion of our services. Our use of open source software, and our contributions to open source projects, could impose limitations on our ability to provide our services, expose us to litigation, cause us to impair our assets and allow third parties to access and use software and technology that we use in our business, all of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We utilize open source software, including Linux-based software, in providing a substantial portion of our services and we expect to continue to incorporate open source software in a substantial portion of our services in the future. The terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to offer our services. Moreover, we cannot ensure that we have not incorporated additional open source software in a manner that is inconsistent with the terms of the applicable license. If we fail to comply with these licenses, or if we combine our proprietary software with open source software in a certain manner, we may be subject to certain requirements, including requirements that we offer our solutions that incorporate the open source software for no cost, that we make available the source code for modifications or derivative works we create based upon, incorporating or using the open source software, and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of applicable open source licenses.

Additionally, the use and distribution of open source software can lead to greater risks than the use of third-party commercial software, as some open source projects have known vulnerabilities and open source software does not come with warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement claims or the quality of the code. From time to time parties have asserted claims against companies that distribute or use open source software in their products and services, asserting that open source software infringes their intellectual property rights. We have been subject to suits, and could be subject to suits in the future, by parties claiming infringement of intellectual property rights with respect to what we believe to be open source software. Litigation could be costly for us to defend, and in such an event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties to continue using such software or offering certain of our services. If we are unable to obtain a required license, we may have to discontinue the use of such software or the sale of our affected services, which could cause us to breach customer agreements and incur liability to customers. The cost of obtaining such licenses, or the consequences of failing to obtain them, could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We also participate in open source projects, including contributing portions of our proprietary software code to such open source projects. Our participation in open source projects, and our use of open source solutions in a substantial portion of our services, could result in an impairment of design and development assets. In addition, our activities with these open source projects could subject us to additional risks of litigation, including indirect infringement claims based on third-party contributors because of our participation in these projects. Furthermore, our participation in open source projects may allow third parties, including our competitors, to have access to software that we use in our business, which could limit our ability to restrict third parties from developing, selling or otherwise providing similar or competitive technology or services, and which may enable our competitors to provide similar services with lower development effort and time, which could ultimately result in a loss of sales for us. While we may be able to claim protection of our intellectual property under other rights, such as trade secrets or contractual rights, our participation in open source projects limits our ability to assert certain of our patent rights against third parties (even if we were to conclude that their use infringes our patents with competing offerings), unless such third parties assert patent rights against us. This limitation on our ability to assert our patent rights against others could harm our business and ability to compete.

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Our business is dependent on our ability to continue to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce the intellectual property and proprietary rights on which our business relies. If we are not successful in obtaining, maintaining, protecting and enforcing our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

In addition to our use of open source software, we rely on patent, copyright, trademark, service mark and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to establish and protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, all of which provide only limited protection. For example, we do not have any patent rights related to our proprietary tools, technology, processes and systems, including Rackspace Fabric, and rely on confidentiality agreements to protect such proprietary rights. We cannot assure you that any future patent, copyright, trademark or service mark registrations will be issued for pending or future applications or that any registered or unregistered copyrights, trademarks or service marks will be enforceable or provide adequate protection of our intellectual property and proprietary rights. Furthermore, the legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property and proprietary rights are uncertain.

We regard our trademarks, trade names and service marks as having significant value, and our brand is an important factor in the marketing of our services. We intend to rely on both registration and common law protection for our trademarks. However, we may be unable to prevent competitors from acquiring trademarks or service marks and other intellectual property and proprietary rights that are similar to, infringe upon, misappropriate, violate or diminish the value of our trademarks and service marks and our other intellectual property and proprietary rights. The value of our intellectual property and proprietary rights could diminish if others assert rights in or ownership of our intellectual property or proprietary rights, or in trademarks that are similar to our trademarks.

We also endeavor to enter into agreements with our employees, contractors and parties with whom we do business to limit access to and disclosure of our proprietary information. However, we cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that has or may have had access to our proprietary information, including our know-how and trade secrets. Additionally, we currently have patents issued and patent applications pending in the U.S. and the E.U., primarily related to our historical, legacy offerings such as OpenStack Public Cloud. However, our patent applications may be challenged and/or ultimately rejected, and our issued patents may be contested, circumvented, found unenforceable or invalidated. Even if we continue to seek patent protection in the future, we may be unable to obtain or maintain patent protection for our technology. In addition, any patents issued from pending or future patent applications owned by or licensed to us in the future may not provide us with competitive advantages, or may be circumvented or successfully challenged, invalidated or held unenforceable through administrative process, including re-examination, inter partes review, interference and derivation proceedings and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings) or litigation. There may be issued patents, or pending patent applications that may result in issued patents, of which we are not aware held by third parties that, if found to be valid and enforceable, could be alleged to be infringed by our current or future technologies or services.

Third parties may independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent, superior to, or otherwise competitive to the technologies we employ in our services or that infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate our intellectual property and proprietary rights. If we fail to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights adequately, our competitors may gain access to our proprietary technology and develop and commercialize substantially identical services or technologies, and the steps we have taken may not prevent unauthorized use, access, distribution, misappropriation, reverse engineering or disclosure of our intellectual property and proprietary information, including our know-how and trade secrets. Enforcement of our intellectual property and proprietary rights also depends on successful legal actions against infringers and parties who misappropriate or otherwise violate our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including our proprietary information and trade secrets, but these actions may not be successful, even when our rights have been infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S., and patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret protection may not be available to us in every country in which our services are available.

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Despite the measures taken by us, it may be possible for a third party to copy or otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including our technology and information, without authorization. Policing unauthorized use of our proprietary technologies and other intellectual property and our services is difficult, time-consuming and costly, and litigation could become necessary in the future to protect or enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights. Any such litigation could be time consuming and expensive to prosecute or resolve, result in substantial diversion of management attention and resources and harm our business and results of operations. Furthermore, any such litigation may ultimately be unsuccessful and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property and proprietary rights. Additionally, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property and proprietary rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims or countersuits are successful, we could lose valuable intellectual property and proprietary rights.

Third-party claims of intellectual property or proprietary right infringement, misappropriation or other violation may be costly to defend and may limit or disrupt our ability to sell our services.

Third-party claims of intellectual property or proprietary right infringement, misappropriation or other violation are commonplace in technology-related industries. Companies in the technology industry, holding companies, non-practicing entities and other adverse intellectual property owners who may or may not have relevant service revenue, but are seeking to profit from royalties in connection with grants of licenses, own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, service marks and trade secrets and frequently make claims of allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property and proprietary rights and may pursue litigation against us. These or other parties have claimed in the past, and could claim in the future, that we have misappropriated, violated, infringed or misused intellectual property proprietary rights. We could incur substantial costs in defending any such litigation, and any such litigation, regardless of merit or outcome, could be time consuming and expensive to settle or litigate and could divert the attention of our technical and management personnel and could harm our business, results of operations and reputation. An adverse determination in any such litigation could prevent us from offering our services to our customers and may require that we procure or develop substitute services that do not infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate, which could be costly, time-consuming or impossible, or require us to obtain a costly and/or unfavorable license. Certain of our agreements with our customers and other third parties include indemnification provisions under which we agree to indemnify or otherwise be liable to them for losses suffered or incurred as a result of claims of infringement, misappropriation or other violation of intellectual property rights. For any intellectual property or proprietary right claim against us or our customers or such other third parties, we may also have to pay damages (including treble damages and attorneys’ fees if we are found to have willfully infringed a party’s rights), indemnify our customers or such other third parties against damages or stop using technology or intellectual property found to be in violation of a third party’s rights, which could harm our business. We may be unable to replace or obtain a license for those technologies with technologies that have the same features or functionality and that are of equal quality and performance standards on commercially reasonable terms or at all. Licensing replacement technologies and intellectual property may significantly increase our operating expenses or may require us to restrict our business activities in one or more respects. We may also be required to develop alternative technology and intellectual property that is non-infringing, misappropriating or violating, which could require significant effort, time and expense and ultimately may not be an alternative that functions as well as the original or is accepted in the marketplace.

We may have additional tax liabilities.

We are subject to a variety of taxes and tax collection obligations in the U.S. (federal and state) and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. We may recognize additional tax expense and be subject to additional tax liabilities, including other liabilities for tax collection obligations due to changes in laws, regulations, administrative practices, principles and interpretations related to tax, including changes to the global tax framework, competition and other laws and accounting rules in various jurisdictions. Such changes could come about as a result of economic, political and other conditions, or certain jurisdictions aggressively interpreting their laws in an effort to raise additional tax revenue. An increasing number of jurisdictions are considering or have unilaterally adopted laws or country-by-country reporting requirements that could adversely affect our effective tax rates or result in other costs to us which could adversely affect our operating results.

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We are also currently subject to tax audits in various jurisdictions, and these jurisdictions may assess additional tax liabilities against us. Developments in an audit, investigation or other tax controversy could have a material and adverse effect on our operating results or cash flows in the period or periods for which that development occurs, as well as for prior and subsequent periods. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these proceedings to determine the adequacy of our tax accruals. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final outcome of audits, investigations and any other tax controversies could be materially different from our historical tax accruals.

Changes in U.S. trade policy, including the imposition of tariffs and the resulting consequences, may have a material and adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The U.S. government has adopted a new approach to trade policy and in some cases to renegotiate, or potentially terminate, certain existing bilateral or multi-lateral trade agreements. It has also imposed tariffs on certain foreign goods, including information and communication technology products. These measures may materially increase costs for goods imported into the U.S. This in turn could mean that a larger portion of our customer’s IT spending will be made on hardware costs and less will be available to spend on our services, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

Our substantial indebtedness could materially and adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry and prevent us from making debt service payments.

We are a highly leveraged company. As of December 31, 2022, we had $3,359.8 million face value of outstanding indebtedness, in addition to $375.0 million of undrawn commitments under the Revolving Credit Facility (without any letters of credit outstanding). Our outstanding indebtedness as of December 31, 2022 included $2,259.8 million of borrowings under the Term Loan Facility, $550.0 million of 5.375% Senior Notes and $550.0 million of 3.50% Senior Secured Notes. For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2022, we made total debt service payments, consisting of required principal and interest payments, of approximately $176.0 million and $166.3 million, respectively, which represented 47.5% and 67.4%, respectively, of our cash flow from operations (or 34.2% and 42.6%, respectively, of our cash flow from operations calculated prior to any deductions for cash interest payments).

Our substantial indebtedness could have important consequences. For example, it could:
limit our ability to borrow money for our working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, strategic initiatives or other purposes;
make it more difficult for us to satisfy our obligations with respect to our indebtedness and any failure to comply with the obligations of any of our debt instruments, including restrictive covenants and borrowing conditions, could result in an event of default under the 5.375% Notes Indenture, the 3.50% Notes Indenture, the First Lien Credit Agreement and agreements governing other indebtedness;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to the payment of interest and the repayment of our indebtedness, thereby reducing funds available to us for other purposes;
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our operations or business;
make us more highly leveraged than some of our competitors, which may place us at a competitive disadvantage;
impact our rent expense on leased space and interest expense from financing leases, which could be significant;
make us more vulnerable to downturns in our business, our industry or the economy;
restrict us from making strategic acquisitions, engaging in development activities, introducing new technologies or exploiting business opportunities;
cause us to make non-strategic divestitures;
limit, along with the financial and other restrictive covenants in our indebtedness, among other things, our ability to borrow additional funds or dispose of assets;
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prevent us from raising the funds necessary to repurchase all 5.375% Senior Notes or 3.50% Senior Secured Notes tendered to us upon the occurrence of certain changes of control, which failure to repurchase would constitute an event of default under the 5.375% Notes Indenture or the 3.50% Notes Indenture, or refinance the Senior Facilities upon a change of control, which is an event of default under the First Lien Credit Agreement; or
expose us to the risk of increased interest rates, as certain of our borrowings, including borrowings under the Senior Facilities, are at variable rates of interest.
In addition, the First Lien Credit Agreement, the 5.375% Notes Indenture and the 3.50% Notes Indenture contain restrictive covenants that will limit our ability to engage in activities that may be in our long-term best interest. Our failure to comply with those covenants could result in an event of default which, if not cured or waived, could result in the acceleration of substantially all of our indebtedness.

Despite our substantial indebtedness, we may still be able to incur significantly more debt, including secured debt, which could intensify the risks associated with our indebtedness.

We and our subsidiaries may be able to incur substantial indebtedness in the future. Although the terms of the 5.375% Notes Indenture, the 3.50% Notes Indenture, and the First Lien Credit Agreement contain restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to incur additional indebtedness, these restrictions are subject to a number of important qualifications and exceptions, and the indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. These restrictions do not prevent us from incurring indebtedness or our subsidiaries from incurring obligations that do not constitute indebtedness under the terms of the 5.375% Notes Indenture, the 3.50% Notes Indenture, and the First Lien Credit Agreement. To the extent that we incur additional indebtedness or such other obligations, the risk associated with our substantial indebtedness as described above under the risk factor “Our substantial indebtedness could materially and adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital to fund our operations, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our industry and prevent us from making debt service payments,” including our potential inability to service our debt, will increase.

As of December 31, 2022, we had $375.0 million available for additional borrowing under the Revolving Credit Facility portion of our Senior Facilities (without any letters of credit outstanding), all of which would be secured. In addition to the 5.375% Senior Notes, the 3.50% Senior Secured Notes and our borrowings under the Senior Facilities, the covenants under the 5.375% Notes Indenture, the 3.50% Notes Indenture, and the First Lien Credit Agreement and the covenants under any other of our existing or future debt instruments allow us to incur a significant amount of additional indebtedness and, subject to certain limitations, such additional indebtedness could be secured.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and to fund our working capital and capital expenditures and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness that may not be successful.

Our ability to satisfy our debt obligations will depend upon, among other things:

our future financial and operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic, industry and competitive conditions and financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors, many of which are beyond our control;
our future ability to refinance or restructure our existing debt obligations, which depends on among other things, the condition of the capital markets, our financial condition and the terms of existing or future debt agreements; and
our future ability to borrow under our Revolving Credit Facility, the availability of which depends on, among other things, our compliance with the covenants in the First Lien Credit Agreement.
We cannot be certain that our business will generate cash flow from operations, or that we will be able to draw under our Revolving Credit Facility or otherwise, in an amount sufficient to fund our liquidity needs. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to service our indebtedness and other liquidity needs, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. We cannot be certain that we will be able to restructure or refinance any of our debt on commercially reasonable terms or at all. In addition, the terms of existing or future debt agreements, including the First Lien Credit Agreement and the 5.375% Notes Indenture and the 3.50% Notes Indenture, may restrict us from adopting some of these
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alternatives. In the absence of such operating results and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions for fair market value or at all. Furthermore, any proceeds that we could realize from any such dispositions may not be adequate to meet our debt service obligations when due. Our equityholders, including Apollo and its affiliates, have no continuing obligation to provide us with debt or equity financing. Our inability to generate sufficient cash flow to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would result in a material and adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

If we cannot make scheduled payments on our indebtedness, we will be in default, and holders of the 5.375% Senior Notes and the 3.50% Senior Secured Notes and the lenders under the Senior Facilities could declare all outstanding principal and interest to be due and payable, the lenders under the Senior Facilities could terminate their commitments to loan money, our secured lenders (including the lenders under the Senior Facilities) and holders of the 3.50% Senior Secured Notes could foreclose against the assets securing their indebtedness and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.

Our debt agreements contain restrictions that limit our flexibility in operating our business.

The First Lien Credit Agreement and the Indentures contain, and any other existing or future indebtedness of ours would likely contain, a number of covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to, among other things:

incur additional debt, guarantee indebtedness or issue certain preferred shares;
pay dividends on or make distributions in respect of, or repurchase or redeem, our capital stock or make other restricted payments;
prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt;
make loans or certain investments;
sell certain assets;
create liens on certain assets;
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;
enter into certain transactions with our affiliates;
substantially alter the businesses we conduct;
enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; and
designate our subsidiaries as unrestricted subsidiaries.
In addition, the Revolving Credit Facility requires us to comply with a net first lien leverage ratio under certain circumstances.
As a result of these covenants, we are limited in the manner in which we conduct our business, and we may be unable to engage in favorable business activities or finance future operations or capital needs. A failure to comply with the covenants in the First Lien Credit Agreement, the 5.375% Notes Indenture, the 3.50% Notes Indenture or any of our other existing or future indebtedness could result in an event of default under the applicable agreements governing such indebtedness, which, if not cured or waived, could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In the event of any such event of default, the lenders under the Senior Facilities, as applicable:

will not be required to lend any additional amounts to us;
could elect to declare all borrowings outstanding, together with accrued and unpaid interest and fees, to be due and payable and terminate all commitments to extend further credit;
could require us to apply our available cash to repay these borrowings; or
could effectively prevent us from making debt service payments on the 5.375% Senior Notes and the 3.50% Senior Secured Notes;
any of which could result in an event of default under the 5.375% Notes Indenture and the 3.50% Notes Indenture.

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Such actions by the lenders could cause cross defaults under our other indebtedness. If we were unable to repay those amounts, the lenders under the Senior Facilities and any of our other existing or future secured indebtedness could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure the Senior Facilities or such other indebtedness. We have pledged substantially all of our assets as collateral under the Senior Facilities.

If any of our outstanding indebtedness under the Senior Facilities or our other indebtedness, including the 5.375% Senior Notes and the 3.50% Senior Secured Notes, were to be accelerated, there can be no assurance that our assets would be sufficient to repay such indebtedness in full.

Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.

Borrowings under the Senior Facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. As of December 31, 2022, assuming the Revolving Credit Facility was fully drawn, each 0.125% change in assumed blended interest rates would result in a $3 million change in annual interest expense on indebtedness under the Senior Facilities. We have entered into, and in the future we may enter into, interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments to reduce interest rate volatility. However, we currently do not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all our variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps we have or may enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk, may prove disadvantageous or may create additional risks.

The phase-out of LIBOR could increase our interest expense and have a material adverse effect on us.

On March 5, 2021, the United Kingdom's Financial Conduct Authority, which regulates LIBOR, announced that it will not compel panel banks to contribute to the overnight 1, 3, 6 and 12 months U.S. dollar LIBOR tenors after June 30, 2023 and all other tenors after December 31, 2021. U.S. dollar LIBOR may be replaced by the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) or other benchmark rates over the next several years. It is not possible to predict the effect of these changes, other reforms or the establishment of alternative reference rates in the U.K., the U.S. or elsewhere.

Borrowings under our Senior Facilities use LIBOR as a benchmark for establishing the applicable interest rate, but the First Lien Credit Agreement includes provisions relating to the future discontinuance of LIBOR and sets forth mechanics for establishing the replacement of LIBOR with an alternative benchmark rate.

The consequences of the phase out of LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted at this time. Any alternative rate for calculating interest with respect to our outstanding indebtedness may not be as favorable or perform in the same manner as LIBOR and could lead to an increase in our interest expense or could impact our ability to refinance some or all of our existing indebtedness. In addition, the transition process may involve, among other things, increased volatility or illiquidity in financial markets, which could also have an adverse effect on us whether or not any replacement rate applicable to our borrowings is affected. Any such effects of the transition away from LIBOR, as well as other unforeseen impacts, may result in increased interest expense and other expenses, difficulties, complications or delays in connection with future financing efforts or otherwise have an adverse impact on our financial condition.

Any downgrade in our credit ratings could limit our ability to obtain future financing, increase our borrowing costs and adversely affect the market price of our existing debt securities or otherwise impair our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Nationally recognized credit rating organizations have issued credit ratings relating to our long-term debt. Our outstanding debt under the Senior Facilities, the 5.375% Senior Notes and the 3.50% Senior Secured Notes currently has non-investment grade ratings. Certain of these organizations have downgraded our credit ratings in the past. There can be no assurance that any rating assigned to any of our debt securities or loans will remain in effect for any given period or that any such ratings will not be lowered, suspended or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, circumstances so warrant.

Any additional actual or anticipated changes or downgrades in our credit ratings, including any announcement that our ratings are under review for a downgrade, could:

adversely affect the market price of some or all our outstanding debt securities or loans;
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limit our access to the capital markets or otherwise adversely affect the availability of other new financing on favorable terms, if at all;
result in new or more restrictive covenants in agreements governing the terms of any future indebtedness that we may incur;
increase our cost of borrowing; and
impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our stock price may fluctuate significantly.

The market price of our common stock could vary significantly as a result of a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control. The following factors could affect our stock price:
our operating and financial performance and prospects;
quarterly variations in the rate of growth (if any) of our financial or operational indicators, such as EPS, net income, revenues, Non-GAAP Net Income, Non-GAAP Operating Profit, and Adjusted EBITDA;
the public reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
strategic actions by our competitors;
changes in operating performance and the stock market valuations of other companies;
announcements related to litigation;
our failure to meet revenue or earnings estimates made by research analysts or other investors;
changes in revenue or earnings estimates, or changes in recommendations or withdrawal of research coverage, by equity research analysts;
speculation in the press or investment community;
sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders, or the perception that such sales may occur;
changes in accounting principles, policies, guidance, interpretations or standards;
additions or departures of key management personnel;
actions by our stockholders;
general market conditions;
domestic and international economic, legal and regulatory factors unrelated to our performance;
material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting; and
the realization of any risks described under this “Risk Factors” section, or other risks that may materialize in the future.
The stock markets in general have experienced extreme volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the trading price of our common stock. Securities class action litigation has often been instituted against companies following periods of volatility in the overall market and in the market price of a company’s securities. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in very substantial costs, divert our management’s attention and resources and harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Future sales of our common stock in the public market, or the perception in the public market that such sales may occur, could reduce our stock price.

As of December 31, 2022, we had 215.7 million shares of common stock outstanding and approximately 23.0 million shares of common stock underlying outstanding options and restricted stock under the 2017 Incentive Plan and the 2020 Incentive Plan, and we have reserved an additional 31.2 million shares of common stock for issuance under the 2020 Incentive Plan and 9.6 million shares of common stock for issuance under the ESPP and we may be required to issue additional shares of common stock to an affiliate of ABRY under the merger agreement related to the acquisition of Datapipe. In addition, certain of our existing stockholders, including Apollo and ABRY, have certain rights to require us to register the sale of common stock held by them including in connection with underwritten offerings. Additionally, we filed a registration statement in respect of all shares of common stock that we may issue under the 2017 Incentive Plan, the 2020 Incentive Plan and the ESPP. After registration, these shares can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance. Sales of significant amounts of stock in the public market upon expiration of applicable lock-up agreements, the perception that such sales may occur, or early release of any lock-up agreements, could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock or make it more difficult for you to sell your shares of common stock at a time and price that you deem appropriate.

If we do not maintain effective internal controls, our financial statements may be inaccurate and the value of your investment in our common stock could decrease.

We expect to continue incurring significant expenses and devote substantial management effort toward ensuring compliance with the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, including with respect to compliance with the requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we fail to achieve and maintain an effective internal control environment, we could suffer material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements and fail in meeting our reporting obligations, which would likely cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information. Additionally, ineffective internal control over financial reporting could expose us to increased risk of fraud or misuse of corporate assets and subject us to potential delisting from the Nasdaq, regulatory investigations, civil or criminal sanctions and litigation, any of which would have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and the market price of our common stock.

We continue to be controlled by Apollo, and Apollo’s interests may conflict with our interests and the interests of other stockholders.

As of December 31, 2022, Apollo beneficially owned approximately 60% of the voting power of our outstanding common stock. Therefore, individuals affiliated with Apollo will have effective control over the outcome of votes on all matters requiring approval by our stockholders, including the election of directors, entering into significant corporate transactions such as mergers, tender offers, the sale of all or substantially all of our assets and issuance of additional debt or equity. The interests of Apollo and its affiliates could conflict with or differ from our interests or the interests of our other stockholders. For example, the concentration of ownership held by Apollo could delay, defer or prevent a change in control of our company or impede a merger, takeover or other business combination which may otherwise be favorable for us. Additionally, Apollo and its affiliates are in the business of making investments in companies and may, from time to time, acquire and hold interests in or provide advice to businesses that compete directly or indirectly with us, or are suppliers or customers of ours. Apollo and its affiliates may also pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. Any such investment may increase the potential for the conflicts of interest discussed in this risk factor. So long as Apollo continues to directly or indirectly beneficially own a significant amount of our equity, even if such amount is less than 50%, Apollo will continue to be able to substantially influence or effectively control our ability to enter into corporate transactions. Apollo also has a right to nominate a number of directors comprising a percentage of our board of directors in accordance with their beneficial ownership of the voting power of our outstanding common stock (rounded up to the nearest whole number), which currently represents at least a majority of our board of directors. In addition, we have an executive committee that serves at the discretion of our board of directors and includes two members nominated by Apollo, who are authorized to take actions (subject to certain exceptions) that they reasonably determine are appropriate.

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We are a “controlled company” within the meaning of the Nasdaq’s rules and, as a result, qualify for and intend to rely on exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements.

Apollo controls a majority of the voting power of our outstanding voting stock, and as a result we are a controlled company within the meaning of the Nasdaq’s corporate governance standards. Under the Nasdaq rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power is held by another person or group of persons acting together is a controlled company and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including the requirements that:

a majority of the board of directors consist of independent directors;
the nominating and corporate governance committee be composed entirely of independent directors or otherwise require that the nominees for directors are determined or recommended to our board of directors by the independent members of our board of directors pursuant to a formal resolution addressing the nominations process and such related matters as may be required under the federal securities laws; and
the compensation committee be composed entirely of independent directors.
We intend to utilize these exemptions as long as we remain a controlled company. Accordingly, you may not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of the Nasdaq. There can be no assurances that we will remain a “controlled company” and, following the loss of such status, we may need to modify our board and committee compositions in order to be in compliance with applicable Nasdaq rules.

We are a holding company and rely on dividends, distributions and other payments, advances and transfers of funds from our subsidiaries to meet our obligations.

We are a holding company that does not conduct any business operations of our own. As a result, we are largely dependent upon cash dividends and distributions and other transfers, including for payments in respect of our indebtedness, from our subsidiaries to meet our obligations. The agreements governing the indebtedness of our subsidiaries impose restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends or other distributions to us. See Item 7 of Part II, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - "Liquidity and Capital Resources." Each of our subsidiaries is a distinct legal entity, and under certain circumstances legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from them and we may be limited in our ability to cause any future joint ventures to distribute their earnings to us. The deterioration of the earnings from, or other available assets of, our subsidiaries for any reason could also limit or impair their ability to pay dividends or other distributions to us.

We do not anticipate paying dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future.

We do not anticipate paying any dividends in the foreseeable future on our common stock. We intend to retain all future earnings for the operation and expansion of our business and the repayment of outstanding debt. Our Senior Facilities and the Indentures contain, and any future indebtedness likely will contain, restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and make other restricted payments.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business or publish negative reports, our stock price could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. If one or more of these analysts ceases coverage of us or fails to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover our company downgrades our common stock, publishes unfavorable research about our business or if our operating results do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.
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ITEM 1B – UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2 – PROPERTIES

Office Space

Our corporate headquarters facility is in Windcrest, Texas, which is in the San Antonio, Texas area and consists of a 1.2 million square foot facility located on 67 acres of land. In addition to our corporate headquarters, we lease office locations throughout the U.S., Europe, the Asia Pacific Region, Mexico and other locations throughout the world. To retain operational flexibility, we are increasingly utilizing shorter-term shared office facilities rather than entering into traditional longer-term office leases.

In October 2022, we announced our intention to sell our current corporate headquarters facility located in Windcrest, Texas and relocate our corporate headquarters to leased office space in San Antonio, Texas.

Data Centers

As of December 31, 2022, we leased data centers located across the U.S., the U.K., Hong Kong, Australia and other locations throughout the world.

We believe that our existing office space and data center facilities are adequate for our current needs and that suitable additional or alternative space will be available in the future to meet our anticipated needs.

ITEM 3 – LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We have contingencies resulting from various litigation, claims and commitments. We record accruals for loss contingencies when losses are considered probable and can be reasonably estimated. The amount that will ultimately be paid related to these matters may differ from the recorded accruals, and the timing of such payments is uncertain.

From time to time we may be subject to various legal proceedings arising in the ordinary course of business. In addition, from time to time, third parties may bring intellectual property claims against us asserting that certain of our offerings, services and technologies infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate the intellectual property or proprietary rights of others.

We are not party to any litigation, the outcome of which, if determined adversely to us, would individually or in the aggregate be reasonably expected to have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial position or results of operations.

Hosted Exchange Incident

We are named in several lawsuits in connection with our previously disclosed ransomware incident. The pending lawsuits seek, among other things, equitable and compensatory relief. We are vigorously defending these matters. We do not expect any of these claims, individually or in the aggregate, to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations. However, at this early stage in the proceedings, we are not able to determine the probability of the outcome of these matters or a range of reasonably expected losses, if any. We maintain insurance, including coverage for cyber-attacks, subject to certain deductibles and policy limitations, in an amount that we believe appropriate.

ITEM 4 – MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

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PART II
ITEM 5 – MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information for Common Stock

Our common stock has been listed on the Nasdaq, under the symbol "RXT" since August 5, 2020. Prior to that date, there was no public market for our common stock.

Holders of Record

As of March 9, 2023, there were 22 registered stockholders of record of our common stock. Because many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these stockholders of record.

Dividend Policy

We have not to date paid any cash dividends on our common stock and we currently do not intend to pay cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. However, we may, in the future, decide to pay dividends on our common stock. Any declaration and payment of cash dividends in the future, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon such factors as earnings levels, cash flows, capital requirements, levels of indebtedness, restrictions imposed by applicable law, our overall financial condition, restrictions in our debt agreements and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors.

As a holding company, our ability to pay dividends depends on our receipt of cash dividends from our operating subsidiaries. Our ability to pay dividends will therefore be restricted as a result of restrictions on their ability to pay dividends to us under our Senior Facilities, the Indentures and under other current and future indebtedness that we or they may incur. See Item 1A of Part I “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock” and Item 7 of Part II “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans

For information regarding securities authorized for issuance under equity compensation plans, see Part III, Item 12 - "Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters."

Stock Performance Graph

The graph set forth below compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock between August 5, 2020 (the date our common stock commenced trading on the Nasdaq) and December 31, 2022 with the cumulative total return of (i) the Standard & Poor's ("S&P") 500 Index and (ii) the S&P 500 Information Technology Index over the same period. All values assume the investment of $100 in our common stock and both of the other indices on August 5, 2020 and assumes the reinvestment of dividends. The graph uses the closing market price on August 5, 2020 of $16.39 per share as the initial value of our common stock. The comparisons shown below are based upon historical data. We caution that the stock price performance shown is not necessarily indicative of, nor is it intended to forecast, the potential future performance of our common stock.


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https://cdn.kscope.io/48320884465ee7c4eac1b9545f79e21f-rxt-20221231_g2.jpg
Company/IndexAugust 5, 2020September 30, 2020December 31, 2020March 31, 2021June 30, 2021September 30, 2021December 31, 2021March 31, 2022June 30, 2022September 30, 2022December 31, 2022
Rackspace Technology, Inc.$100.00 $117.69 $116.29 $145.09 $119.65 $86.76 $82.18 $68.09 $43.75 $24.89 $18.00 
S&P 500 Index$100.00 $101.06 $112.87 $119.39 $129.14 $129.44 $143.22 $136.14 $113.75 $107.75 $115.38 
S&P 500 Information Technology Index$100.00 $102.62 $114.45 $116.44 $129.59 $131.06 $152.62 $139.56 $111.04 $103.89 $108.50 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities

Not Applicable.

Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

During the three months ended December 31, 2022, we did not repurchase any of our common stock.

On March 3, 2022, our board of directors authorized a program to repurchase up to $75.0 million of shares of our common stock. The authorization was effective immediately, expires on September 30, 2023 and can be discontinued at any time. Under the program, shares may be repurchased from time to time through open-market transactions (including pre-set trading plans), privately negotiated transactions, accelerated share repurchases and other transactions in accordance with applicable security laws. As of December 31, 2022, $44.0 million remains available to be purchased under this program.

ITEM 6 - [RESERVED]


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ITEM 7 - MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following MD&A is intended to help readers understand our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows and should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report. References to “Rackspace Technology,” “we,” “our company,” “the company,” “us,” or “our” refer to Rackspace Technology and its consolidated subsidiaries.

The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risk, assumptions and uncertainties, such as statements of our plans, objectives, expectations, intentions and forecasts. Our actual results and the timing of selected events could differ materially from those discussed in these forward-looking statements as a result of several factors, including those set forth under the section of this Annual Report titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this Annual Report. You should carefully read the “Risk Factors” to gain an understanding of the important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements. Please also see “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” contained elsewhere in this Annual Report.

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Overview

We are a leading end-to-end multicloud technology services company. We design, build and operate our customers’ cloud environments across all major technology platforms, irrespective of technology stack or deployment model. We partner with our customers at every stage of their cloud journey, enabling them to modernize applications, build new products and adopt innovative technologies. We serve our customers with a unique combination of proprietary technology resulting from over $1 billion of investment and services expertise from a team of highly skilled consultants and engineers. And we provide our customers with unbiased expertise and technology solutions, delivered over the world’s leading cloud services, all wrapped in Fanatical Experience.

We aim to be our customers’ most trusted advisor and services partner in their path to cloud transformation and to accelerate the value of their cloud investments. We give customers the ability to make fluid decisions when choosing the right technologies, and we recommend solutions based on customers’ unique objectives. In this way, we empower our customers to harness the full benefits of cloud adoption.

Our team of 6,800 highly skilled Rackers, including consultants and engineers, partners with companies at every stage of their cloud transformation journey

We deliver our services to a global customer base through an integrated service delivery model. We have a presence in more than 60 cities around the world. This footprint allows us to better serve customers based in various countries, especially multinational companies requiring cross-border solutions. We have a strong presence with customers of all sizes, including enterprise businesses (revenue in excess of $3 billion), mid-market businesses (revenue of $300 million to $3 billion) and commercial customers (revenue less than $300 million).

On November 3, 2016, Rackspace Hosting (now named Rackspace Technology Global) was acquired by Inception Parent, an indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the company. Pursuant to the merger agreement, dated as of August 26, 2016, Rackspace Technology Global merged with a wholly-owned subsidiary of Inception Parent, with Rackspace Technology Global surviving as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Inception Parent.

We operate our business and report our results through three reportable segments: (1) Multicloud Services, (2) Apps & Cross Platform and (3) OpenStack Public Cloud. Our Multicloud Services segment includes our multicloud services offerings, as well as professional services related to designing and building multicloud solutions and cloud-native applications. Our Apps & Cross Platform segment includes managed applications, managed security and data services, as well as professional services related to designing and implementing application, security and data services. In early 2017, we determined that our OpenStack Public Cloud offering was not core to our go-forward operations and we ceased to incentivize our sales team to promote and sell the product by the end of that year. We continue to serve our existing OpenStack Public Cloud customer base while we focus our growth strategy and investments on our Multicloud Services and Apps & Cross Platform offerings. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 17, "Segment Reporting" for additional information about our segments. We refer to certain supplementary Core financial measures, which reflect the results or otherwise pertain to the performance of our Multicloud Services and Apps & Cross Platform segments, in the aggregate. Our Core financial measures exclude the results and performance of our OpenStack Public Cloud segment.

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We generate revenue primarily through the sale of consumption-based contracts for our services offerings, which are recurring in nature. We also generate revenue from the sale of professional services related to designing and building customer solutions, which are non-recurring in nature. Arrangements within our Multicloud Services offerings generally have a fixed term, typically from 12 to 36 months, with a monthly recurring fee based on the computing resources provided to and utilized by the customer, the complexity of the underlying infrastructure and the level of support we provide. Our other primary sources of revenue are for public cloud services within our Multicloud Services, our Apps & Cross Platform and our OpenStack Public Cloud offerings. Contracts for these arrangements typically operate on a consumption model and can be canceled at any time without penalty.

We sell our services through direct sales teams, third-party channel partners and via online orders. Our sales model is based on both distributed and centralized sales teams with leads generated from technology partners, customer referrals, channel partners and corporate marketing efforts. We offer customers the flexibility to select the best combination of resources in order to meet the requirements of their unique applications and provide the technology to seamlessly operate and manage multiple cloud computing environments.

On August 7, 2020, we completed the IPO, in which we issued and sold 33,500,000 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $21.00 per share.

On July 21, 2021, we committed to the July 2021 Restructuring Plan to drive a change in the type and location of certain positions that was expected to result in the termination of approximately 10% of our workforce. We recorded total charges of $50.5 million and $5.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2021 and December 31, 2022, respectively, related to this restructuring plan. The 2021 charges included $25.4 million for employee related costs and other costs accounted for as exit and disposal costs under ASC 420 as described in Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 10, "July 2021 Restructuring Plan." Employee related costs consisted of one-time termination benefits and certain contractual termination benefits with executives. Other costs consisted of professional fees and non-cash charges related to a contract termination with a third-party. The remaining $25.1 million of 2021 charges and total 2022 charges consisted primarily of one-time offshore build out costs which are not accounted for as exit and disposal costs under ASC 420. We do not expect to incur any further expenses related to the July 2021 Restructuring Plan.

In December 2022, we experienced a ransomware incident which caused service disruptions for our Hosted Exchange customers. The Hosted Exchange email business, reported in our Apps & Cross Platform segment, is a managed email solution provided to small and medium businesses and represented approximately 1% of our total annual revenue. Following discovery of the incident, we engaged an industry-leading global cybersecurity firm to help investigate the incident and remediate as necessary. The firm confirmed that the incident was quickly contained and limited solely to the Hosted Exchange email business. We have sunset the on-premises Hosted Exchange platform and have transitioned many customers from the Hosted Exchange platform to Microsoft 365 through our reseller agreement with Microsoft. As of December 31, 2022, we recorded $5.9 million of expenses related to the Hosted Exchange incident, including costs to investigate and remediate, legal and other professional services, and supplemental staff resources that were deployed to provide support to customers. We expect to continue to incur legal and other professional services costs in future periods and will expense those costs as incurred. We maintain cybersecurity insurance commensurate with the size of our business, and expect that a significant portion of the incremental costs related to the Hosted Exchange incident will be covered by insurance. However, the timing of insurance reimbursements may differ from the timing of recognition of the related expenses.

Effective on January 1, 2023, we reorganized around a two-business unit operating model, Public Cloud and Private Cloud. This two-business unit operating model ensures increased focus, delivery, and service quality for our customers. Beginning in 2023, we will change our segment reporting to reflect this reorganization under three reporting segments: Public Cloud, Private Cloud and OpenStack Public Cloud.

Subsequent Events

For a description of subsequent events, see "Subsequent Events" in Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 1, "Company Overview, Basis of Presentation, and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies."

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Impact of COVID-19

The effects of COVID-19 and its variants continue to evolve, and the full impact and duration of the virus are unknown. To date, COVID-19 and its variants have not adversely affected our results of operations or financial condition in any material respect. However, there are remaining uncertainties as a result of COVID-19, particularly the possibility of new variant strain(s) of the virus, the potential resurgence in the spread of the virus and the pace of economic recovery. The full extent to which COVID-19 and its variants may impact our financial condition or results of operations over the medium to long term, therefore, remains uncertain. We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may take further actions that alter our business operations as may be required by federal, state or local authorities, or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers and stockholders.

Russia and Ukraine Conflict

Political and economic uncertainty surrounding the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine could have a material adverse effect on our business. Currently, the conflict has not had a significant impact on our operations or financial performance. However, our overall performance depends in part on worldwide economic and geopolitical conditions. We are monitoring the situation and the potential for the conflict to spread to other countries which could adversely impact our customers and operations, and we may take actions that modify our business operations as may be required by federal, state or local authorities, or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, partners, suppliers and stockholders.

Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

We believe our combination of proprietary technology, automation capabilities and technical expertise creates a value proposition for our customers that is hard to replicate for both competitors and in-house IT departments. Our continued success depends to a significant extent on our ability to meet the challenges presented by our highly competitive and dynamic market, including the following key factors:

Differentiating Our Service Offerings in a Competitive Market Environment

Our success depends to a significant extent on our ability to differentiate, expand and upgrade our service offerings in line with developing customer needs, while deepening our relationships with leading public cloud service providers and establishing new relationships, including with sales partners. We are a certified premier consulting and managed services partner to some of the largest cloud computing platforms, including AWS, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, Oracle, SAP and VMware. We believe we are unique in our ability to serve customers across major technology stacks and deployment options, all while delivering Fanatical Experience. Our existing and prospective customers are also under increasing pressure to move from on-premise or self-managed IT to the cloud to compete effectively in a digital economy and maximize the value of their cloud investments, which we believe presents an opportunity for professional services projects as well as new recurring business.

Customer Relationships and Retention

Our success greatly depends on our ability to retain and develop opportunities with our existing customers and to attract new customers. We operate in a growing but competitive and evolving market environment, requiring innovation to differentiate us from our competitors. We believe that our integrated cloud service portfolio and our differentiated customer experience and technology are keys to retaining and growing revenue from existing customers as well as acquiring new customers. For example, we believe that Rackspace Fabric provides customers a unified experience across their entire cloud and security footprint, and that our Rackspace Elastic Engineering model helps customers embrace a cloud native approach with on-demand access to a dedicated team of highly skilled cloud architects and engineers. These offerings differentiate us from legacy IT service providers that operate under long-term fixed and project-based fee structures often tethered to their existing technologies with less automation.

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Business Mix Shift

The mix of revenue within our Multicloud Services segment has shifted in recent years, from mature offerings such as managed hosting and colocation to managed public cloud services. Since the mature offerings are hosted on our own infrastructure, these offerings carry a higher gross margin, but also a higher burden on the company for operating expenses and capital expenditures. Conversely, as managed public cloud services are hosted on third-party infrastructure, these services carry a lower gross margin, but also a correspondingly lower operating expense and capital expenditure burdens. As a result, despite the difference in gross margins between the mature offerings and the growth offerings, the operating margins for the different classes of offerings is relatively similar.

Shift in Capital Intensity

In recent years, the mix of our consolidated revenues has shifted from high capital intensity service offerings to low capital intensity service offerings and we expect this mix shift to continue. Historically, we primarily offered managed hosting and OpenStack Public Cloud services to our customers, which required us to deploy servers and equipment to ensure adequate capacity for new customers and, in certain cases, on behalf of customers at the start or during the performance of a contract, resulting in a high level of anticipatory and success-based capital expenditures. Today, the vast majority of our revenue is derived from service offerings, such as managed public cloud services, application services and professional services, which have significantly lower success-based capital requirements because they allow us to leverage our partners’ infrastructure or technology to make our capital expenditures more efficient. As a result, we have recently experienced and expect to continue to experience changes in our capital expenditures requirements.

Our capital expenditures equaled 8%, 7% and 5% of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2021 and 2022, respectively. While there is some variability in capital expenditures from quarter to quarter due to timing of purchases, we expect to maintain current capital intensity levels over the longer term.

Human Capital

Our ability to be successful and to execute on our strategies depends on our ability to hire and retain qualified employees. Like others in our industry, we are realizing higher than historical levels of voluntary attrition. As a result, we are accelerating our best shoring efforts and expanding the geographic reach of our recruiting pool. The company continues to enhance and develop programs to attract, retain and develop top talent.

Key Components of Statement of Operations

Revenue

A substantial amount of our revenue, particularly from our private cloud services within our Multicloud Services segment, is generated pursuant to contracts that typically have a fixed term (typically from 12 to 36 months). Our customers generally have the right to cancel their contracts by providing us with written notice prior to the end of the fixed term, though most of our contracts provide for termination fees in the event of cancellation prior to the end of their term, typically amounting to the outstanding value of the contract. These contracts include a monthly recurring fee, which is determined based on the computing resources utilized and provided to the customer, the complexity of the underlying infrastructure and the level of support we provide. Our public cloud services within the Multicloud Services segment and most of our Apps & Cross Platform and OpenStack Public Cloud services generate usage-based revenue invoiced on a monthly basis and can be canceled at any time without penalty. We also generate revenue from usage-based fees and fees from professional services earned from customers using our hosting and other services. We typically recognize revenue on a daily basis, as services are provided, in an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled in exchange for our services. Our usage-based arrangements generally include a variable consideration component, consisting of monthly utility fees, with a defined price and undefined quantity. Our customer contracts also typically contain service level guarantees, including with respect to network uptime requirements, that provide discounts when we fail to meet specific obligations and, with respect to certain products, we may offer volume discounts based on usage. As these variable consideration components consist of a single distinct daily service provided on a single performance obligation, we account for all of them as services are provided and earned.

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Cost of revenue

Cost of revenue consists primarily of usage charges for third-party infrastructure and personnel costs (including salaries, bonuses, benefits and share-based compensation) for engineers, developers and other employees involved in the delivery of services to our customers. Cost of revenue also includes depreciation of servers, software and other systems infrastructure, data center rent and other infrastructure maintenance and support costs, including software license costs and utilities. Cost of revenue is driven mainly by demand for our services, our service mix and the cost of labor in a given geography.

Selling, general and administrative expenses

SG&A expenses consist primarily of personnel costs (including salaries, bonuses, commissions, benefits and share-based compensation) for our sales force, executive team and corporate administrative and support employees, including our human resources, finance, accounting and legal functions. SG&A also includes R&D costs, repair and maintenance of corporate infrastructure, facilities rent, third-party advisory fees (including audit, legal and management consulting costs), marketing and advertising costs and insurance, as well as the amortization of related intangible assets and certain depreciation of fixed assets.

SG&A also includes transaction costs related to acquisitions and financings along with costs related to integration and business transformation initiatives which may impact the comparability of SG&A between periods. Employee related costs and other costs incurred, as discussed in Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 10, "July 2021 Restructuring Plan," are also included within SG&A.

Income taxes

Our income tax benefit and deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect management’s best assessment of estimated current and future taxes to be paid. To date, we have recorded consolidated tax benefits, reflecting our net losses, though certain of our non-U.S. subsidiaries have incurred corporate tax expense according to the relevant taxing jurisdictions. We are under certain domestic and foreign tax audits. Due to the complexity involved with certain tax matters, there is the possibility that the various taxing authorities may disagree with certain tax positions filed on our income tax returns. We believe we have made adequate provision for all uncertain tax positions. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 13, "Taxes."

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Results of Operations

We discuss our historical results of operations, and the key components of those results, below. Past financial results are not necessarily indicative of future results.

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2022

The following table sets forth our results of operations for the specified periods, as well as changes between periods and as a percentage of revenue for those same periods (totals in table may not foot due to rounding):

Year Ended December 31,Year-Over-Year Comparison
20212022
(In millions, except %)Amount% RevenueAmount% RevenueAmount% Change
Revenue$3,009.5 100.0 %$3,122.3 100.0 %$112.8 3.7 %
Cost of revenue(2,072.7)(68.9)%(2,265.4)(72.6)%(192.7)9.3 %
Gross profit936.8 31.1 %856.9 27.4 %(79.9)(8.5)%
Selling, general and administrative expenses(906.8)(30.1)%(855.3)(27.4)%51.5 (5.7)%
Impairment of goodwill(52.4)(1.7)%(534.5)(17.1)%(482.1)NM
Impairment of assets— — %(146.1)(4.7)%(146.1)100.0 %
Gain on sale of land19.9 0.7 %— — %(19.9)(100.0)%
Loss from operations(2.5)(0.1)%(679.0)(21.7)%(676.5)NM
Other income (expense):
Interest expense(205.1)(6.8)%(208.5)(6.7)%(3.4)1.7 %
Loss on investments, net(3.0)(0.1)%(0.2)(0.0)%2.8 (93.3)%
Debt modification and extinguishment costs(37.5)(1.2)%— — %37.5 (100.0)%
Other expense, net(1.0)(0.0)%(10.0)(0.3)%(9.0)NM
Total other income (expense)(246.6)(8.2)%(218.7)(7.0)%27.9 (11.3)%
Loss before income taxes(249.1)(8.3)%(897.7)(28.8)%(648.6)NM
Benefit for income taxes30.8 1.0 %92.9 3.0 %62.1 NM
Net loss$(218.3)(7.3)%$(804.8)(25.8)%$(586.5)NM
NM = not meaningful.

Revenue

Revenue increased $113 million, or 3.7%, to $3,122 million in 2022 from $3,010 million in 2021. Revenue was positively impacted by new customer acquisition and growing customer spend in our Multicloud Services and Apps & Cross Platform segments, as discussed below.

After removing the impact from foreign currency fluctuations, on a constant currency basis, revenue increased 5.2% year-over-year. The following table presents revenue growth by segment:
Year Ended December 31,% Change
(In millions, except %)20212022Actual
Constant Currency (1)
Multicloud Services$2,449.1 $2,574.9 5.1 %6.7 %
Apps & Cross Platform377.6 396.9 5.1 %5.9 %
Core Revenue2,826.7 2,971.8 5.1 %6.6 %
OpenStack Public Cloud182.8 150.5 (17.7)%(16.1)%
Total$3,009.5 $3,122.3 3.7 %5.2 %
(1)     Refer to "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" in this section for further explanation and reconciliation.

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Multicloud Services revenue in 2022 increased 5% on an actual basis, and 7% on a constant currency basis, from 2021. Underlying growth was driven by both the acquisition of new customers and increased spend by existing customers, partially offset by cancellations by existing customers. Offerings in this segment with the strongest growth include managed public cloud services on AWS, Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud.

Apps & Cross Platform revenue in 2022 increased 5% on an actual basis, and 6% on a constant currency basis, from 2021, driven by growth in professional services across our SaaS applications and data services offerings, partially offset by the discontinuation of a non-core line of business in 2021.

OpenStack Public Cloud revenue in 2022 decreased 18% on an actual basis, and 16% on a constant currency basis, from 2021 due to customer churn.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue increased $193 million, or 9%, to $2,265 million in 2022 from $2,073 million in 2021, primarily due to an increase in usage charges for third-party infrastructure associated with growth in these offerings. The increase in expense was partially offset by a decline in personnel costs primarily due to cost savings as a result of shifting roles to lower-cost locations as part of our continued focus on business optimization initiatives, including the July 2021 Restructuring Plan. We also had higher severance in the prior period. In addition, there were year-over-year data center expense reductions as a result of initiatives to lower our cost structure, which included the consolidation of data center facilities. Depreciation expense also decreased between periods primarily due to certain property, equipment and software reaching the end of its useful life for depreciation purposes as we shift towards faster-growing, value-added service offerings which have significantly lower capital requirements than our legacy capital-intensive revenue streams.

As a percentage of revenue, cost of revenue increased 370 basis points in 2022 to 72.6% from 68.9% in 2021, primarily driven by a 640 basis point increase in usage charges for third-party infrastructure, partially offset by a decrease related to personnel costs, data center, and depreciation expense.

Gross Profit and Non-GAAP Gross Profit

Our consolidated gross profit was $857 million in 2022, a decrease of $80 million from $937 million in 2021. Our Non-GAAP Gross Profit was $884 million in 2022, a decrease of $112 million from $996 million in 2021. Non-GAAP Gross Profit is a non-GAAP financial measure. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for more information. Our consolidated gross margin was 27.4% in 2022, a decrease of 370 basis points from 31.1% in 2021.
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The table below presents a reconciliation of total consolidated gross profit to Non-GAAP Gross Profit, which represents the total of our individual segment gross profit measures.

Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)20212022
Total consolidated gross profit$936.8 $856.9 
Share-based compensation expense16.7 11.6 
Other compensation expense (1)
2.7 1.9 
Purchase accounting impact on expense (2)
4.7 2.7 
Restructuring and transformation expenses (3)
35.5 10.9 
Hosted Exchange incident expenses— 0.2 
Non-GAAP Gross Profit$996.4 $884.2 
(1)Adjustments for retention bonuses, mainly in connection with restructuring and transformation projects, and the related payroll tax, and payroll taxes associated with the exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock.
(2)
Adjustment for the impact of purchase accounting from the Rackspace Acquisition on expenses.
(3)Adjustment for the impact of business transformation and optimization activities, as well as associated severance, facility closure costs and lease termination expenses. This amount also includes certain costs associated with the July 2021 Restructuring Plan which are not accounted for as exit and disposal costs under ASC 420, including one-time offshore build out costs.

Our segment gross profit and gross margin for the periods indicated, and the change in gross profit between periods is shown in the table below:

Year Ended December 31,Year-Over-Year Comparison
(In millions, except %)20212022
Segment gross profit:Amount% of Segment RevenueAmount% of Segment RevenueAmount% Change
Multicloud Services$793.4 32.4 %$701.7 27.3 %$(91.7)(11.6)%
Apps & Cross Platform135.9 36.0 %139.2 35.1 %3.3 2.4 %
OpenStack Public Cloud67.1 36.7 %43.3 28.8 %(23.8)(35.5)%
Non-GAAP Gross Profit$996.4 $884.2 $(112.2)(11.3)%

Multicloud Services gross profit decreased by 12% in 2022 from 2021. Segment gross profit as a percentage of segment revenue decreased by 510 basis points, reflecting a 13% increase in segment cost of revenue and a 5% increase in segment revenue. The increase in costs was mainly driven by higher third-party infrastructure costs due to the increase in revenue in our growth offerings resulting in a larger proportion of these services within this segment, partially offset by lower personnel, data center, and depreciation expense.

Apps & Cross Platform gross profit increased 2% in 2022 from 2021. Segment gross profit as a percentage of segment revenue decreased by 90 basis points, reflecting a 7% increase in segment cost of revenue and a 5% increase in segment revenue.

OpenStack Public Cloud gross profit decreased 35% in 2022 from 2021 due to customer churn. Segment gross profit as a percentage of segment revenue decreased by 790 basis points, reflecting an 18% decrease in segment revenue, partially offset by a 7% decrease in segment cost of revenue.

The aggregate amount of costs reflected in consolidated gross profit but excluded from Non-GAAP Gross Profit was $27.3 million in 2022, a decrease of $32.3 million from $59.6 million in 2021, primarily driven by lower restructuring and transformation expenses and share-based compensation.

For more information about our segment gross profit, see Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 17, "Segment Reporting."
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Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

SG&A expenses decreased $52 million, or 6%, to $855 million in 2022 from $907 million in 2021, due to a decline in personnel costs from cost savings as a result of shifting roles to lower-cost locations as part of our continued focus on business optimization initiatives. We also had lower severance expense between periods. The prior period included $25 million of restructuring charges related to the July 2021 Restructuring Plan accounted for as exit and disposal costs under ASC 420, of which $14 million were personnel related costs. There were also reductions in costs related to other business optimization and integration initiatives compared to the prior period, as well as lower amortization expense related to certain intangible assets reaching the end of their useful life. These reductions in expense were partially offset by an increase in travel expense as a result of the easing of COVID-19 restrictions and costs incurred in 2022 related to the Hosted Exchange incident.

As a percentage of revenue, SG&A expenses decreased 270 basis points, to 27.4% in 2022 from 30.1% in 2021, for the reasons discussed above.

Impairment of Goodwill

During the third quarter of 2022, we experienced a sustained decline in our stock price resulting in our market capitalization being less than the carrying value of our combined reporting units. We performed an interim goodwill impairment analysis as of September 1, 2022 based on our assessment of several events and circumstances that affect the significant inputs used to determine the fair value of our reporting units, including the significance of the amount of excess carrying value over fair value, consistency of operating margins and cash flows, budgeted-to-actual performance from prior year, overall change in economic climate, changes in the industry and competitive environment, and earnings quality and sustainability. In addition, as of September 1, 2022, we lowered our projected operating results primarily due to product mix shifts and market concerns related to inflation and other macroeconomic factors. As a result, we determined that the carrying value of our Multicloud Services reporting unit exceeded its fair value and recorded an impairment of goodwill of $405 million during the third quarter of 2022.

The results of our annual goodwill impairment test as of October 1, 2022 did not indicate any impairments of goodwill.

During the fourth quarter of 2022, subsequent to our annual goodwill impairment analysis, we experienced a decline in our market capitalization following a ransomware incident in early December which caused service disruptions on our Hosted Exchange email business. We therefore determined it appropriate to perform an interim quantitative assessment of our reporting units as of December 31, 2022. As a result, we determined that the carrying value of our Apps & Cross Platform reporting unit exceeded its fair value and recorded an impairment of goodwill of $129 million during the fourth quarter of 2022.

As a result of our annual goodwill impairment test performed during the fourth quarter of 2021, we determined that the carrying amount of our OpenStack Public Cloud reporting unit exceeded its fair value and fully impaired its goodwill by recording a goodwill impairment charge of $52 million. The impairment was driven by deteriorating forecasted margins and cash flows within the reporting unit primarily due to operating costs declining at a slower rate than previously anticipated even after factoring in the long term impacts of the July 2021 Restructuring Plan.

See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 5, "Goodwill and Intangible Assets" for further discussion.

Impairment of Assets

We also evaluated our indefinite-lived intangible asset and long-lived assets for impairment as of September 1, 2022. As a result of these evaluations, we recorded total impairment charges of $59 million during the third quarter of 2022, consisting of a $21 million impairment of our indefinite-lived trade name intangible asset and a $38 million impairment of OpenStack Public Cloud long-lived assets.

As of December 31, 2022, we recorded an additional $12 million impairment of our indefinite-lived trade name intangible asset.

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In addition, as of December 31, 2022, our corporate headquarters property was classified as held for sale. The property's previous carrying amount of $83 million was written down to its estimated fair value, less estimated cost to sell, of $12 million, resulting in a $71 million impairment charge. We also wrote-off the remaining $5 million net book value of the related property tax abatement asset in connection with the held for sale classification.

There were no such impairments in 2021.

See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4, "Property, Equipment and Software, net" and Note 5, "Goodwill and Intangible Assets" for further discussion.

Gain on Sale of Land

In January 2021, we recorded a $20 million gain related to the sale of a parcel of undeveloped land in the United Kingdom adjacent to one of our existing data centers, as further discussed in Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4, "Property, Equipment and Software, net."

Debt Modification and Extinguishment Costs

In 2021, we recorded $37 million and $0.5 million of debt modification and extinguishment costs related to the February 2021 Refinancing Transaction and termination of the Receivables Financing Facility, respectively. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 6, "Debt" for further discussion.

Other Expense, Net

The increase in other expense, net to $10 million in 2022 from $1 million in 2021 is primarily related to foreign currency transaction losses.

Benefit for Income Taxes

Our income tax benefit increased by $62 million to $93 million in 2022 from $31 million in 2021. Our effective tax rate decreased from 12.4% in 2021 to 10.3% in 2022. The decrease in the effective tax rate year-over-year is primarily due to the tax impact associated with the goodwill impairments, the geographic distribution of profits and tax effects from nondeductible share-based compensation. The difference between the effective tax rate for 2022 and the statutory tax rate is primarily due to the tax impact associated with the goodwill impairments, the geographic distribution of profits, executive compensation that is nondeductible under IRC Section 162(m) and tax effects from nondeductible share-based compensation.

For a full reconciliation of our effective tax rate to the U.S. federal statutory rate and further explanation of our benefit for income taxes, see Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 13, "Taxes."
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Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2021

The following table sets forth our results of operations for the specified periods, as well as changes between periods and as a percentage of revenue for those same periods (totals in table may not foot due to rounding):

Year Ended December 31,Year-Over-Year Comparison
20202021
(In millions, except %)Amount% RevenueAmount% RevenueAmount% Change
Revenue$2,707.1 100.0 %$3,009.5 100.0 %$302.4 11.2 %
Cost of revenue(1,722.7)(63.6)%(2,072.7)(68.9)%(350.0)20.3 %
Gross profit984.4 36.4 %936.8 31.1 %(47.6)(4.8)%
Selling, general and administrative expenses(959.7)(35.4)%(906.8)(30.1)%52.9 (5.5)%
Impairment of goodwill— — %(52.4)(1.7)%(52.4)100.0 %
Gain on sale of land— — %19.9 0.7 %19.9 100.0 %
Income (loss) from operations24.7 0.9 %(2.5)(0.1)%(27.2)NM
Other income (expense):
Interest expense(268.4)(9.9)%(205.1)(6.8)%63.3 (23.6)%
Gain (loss) on investments, net0.7 0.0 %(3.0)(0.1)%(3.7)NM
Debt modification and extinguishment costs(71.5)(2.6)%(37.5)(1.2)%34.0 (47.6)%
Other income (expense), net2.5 0.1 %(1.0)(0.0)%(3.5)NM
Total other income (expense)(336.7)(12.4)%(246.6)(8.2)%90.1 (26.8)%
Loss before income taxes(312.0)(11.5)%(249.1)(8.3)%62.9 (20.2)%
Benefit for income taxes66.2 2.4 %30.8 1.0 %(35.4)(53.5)%
Net loss$(245.8)(9.1)%$(218.3)(7.3)%$27.5 (11.2)%
NM = not meaningful.

Revenue

Revenue increased $302 million, or 11.2%, to $3,010 million in 2021 from $2,707 million in 2020. Revenue was positively impacted by new customer acquisition and growing customer spend in our Multicloud Services and Apps & Cross Platform segments, as discussed below.

After removing the impact from foreign currency fluctuations, on a constant currency basis, revenue increased 10.1% year-over-year. The following table presents revenue growth by segment:
Year Ended December 31,% Change
(In millions, except %)20202021Actual
Constant Currency (1)
Multicloud Services$2,141.5 $2,449.1 14.4 %13.2 %
Apps & Cross Platform336.6 377.6 12.2 %11.6 %
Core Revenue2,478.1 2,826.7 14.1 %13.0 %
OpenStack Public Cloud229.0 182.8 (20.2)%(21.3)%
Total$2,707.1 $3,009.5 11.2 %10.1 %
(1)     Refer to "Non-GAAP Financial Measures" in this section for further explanation and reconciliation.

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Multicloud Services revenue in 2021 increased 14% on an actual basis, and 13% on a constant currency basis, from 2020. Underlying growth was primarily driven by both the acquisition of new customers and increased spend by existing customers, partially offset by cancellations by existing customers. Growth offerings such as managed public cloud services and Rackspace Services for VMware Cloud represented approximately 75% of the Multicloud Services segment in 2021, and revenue from these growth offerings increased 30% in 2021 compared to 2020. This growth was partially offset by a decrease in revenue from mature offerings such as managed hosting and colocation services.

Apps & Cross Platform revenue in 2021 increased 12%, on an actual and constant currency basis, from 2020, due to growth in our offerings for managed security and management of productivity and collaboration applications, partially offset by a decrease in professional services revenue.

OpenStack Public Cloud revenue in 2021 decreased 20% on an actual basis, and 21% on a constant currency basis, from 2020 due to customer churn.

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue increased $350 million, or 20%, to $2,073 million in 2021 from $1,723 million in 2020, primarily due to an increase in usage charges for third-party infrastructure associated with growth in these offerings and the impact of an increased volume of larger, multi-year customer contracts which typically have a larger infrastructure component and lower margins. The increase in third-party infrastructure was partially offset by a decline in personnel costs primarily due to cost savings as a result of shifting roles to lower-cost locations as part of our continued focus on business optimization initiatives, including the July 2021 Restructuring Plan. Depreciation expense also decreased between periods primarily related to certain property, equipment and software reaching the end of its useful life for depreciation purposes as we shift towards faster-growing, value-added service offerings which have significantly lower capital requirements than our legacy capital-intensive revenue streams. Additionally, in March 2021, we completed an assessment of the useful lives of certain customer gear equipment, which resulted in a revision of certain useful lives within our policy ranges, further contributing to the reduction in depreciation expense. We also had year-over-year expense reductions in data center and license expenses as a result of initiatives to lower our cost structure, which included the consolidation of data center facilities and optimizing our vendor license spending.

As a percentage of revenue, cost of revenue increased 530 basis points in 2021 to 68.9% from 63.6% in 2020, primarily driven by a 1,270 basis point increase in usage charges for third-party infrastructure, partially offset by a decrease related to personnel costs, depreciation, data center, and license expense.

Gross Profit and Non-GAAP Gross Profit

Our consolidated gross profit was $937 million in 2021, a decrease of $48 million from $984 million in 2020. Our Non-GAAP Gross Profit was $996 million in 2021, a decrease of $30 million from $1,026 million in 2020. Non-GAAP Gross Profit is a non-GAAP financial measure. See “Non-GAAP Financial Measures” below for more information. Our consolidated gross margin was 31.1% in 2021, a decrease of 530 basis points from 36.4% in 2020.

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The table below presents a reconciliation of total consolidated gross profit to Non-GAAP Gross Profit, which represents the total of our individual segment gross profit measures.

Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)20202021
Total consolidated gross profit$984.4 $936.8 
Share-based compensation expense14.5 16.7 
Other compensation expense (1)
5.9 2.7 
Purchase accounting impact on expense (2)
5.9 4.7 
Restructuring and transformation expenses (3)
15.3 35.5 
Non-GAAP Gross Profit$1,026.0 $996.4 
(1)Adjustments for retention bonuses, mainly in connection with restructuring and transformation projects, and the related payroll tax, and payroll taxes associated with the exercise of stock options and vesting of restricted stock.
(2)Adjustment for the impact of purchase accounting from the Rackspace Acquisition on expenses.
(3)Adjustment for the impact of business transformation and optimization activities, as well as associated severance, facility closure costs and lease termination expenses. This amount also includes certain costs associated with the July 2021 Restructuring Plan which are not accounted for as exit and disposal costs under ASC 420, including one-time offshore build out costs.

Our segment gross profit and gross margin for the periods indicated, and the change in gross profit between periods is shown in the table below:
Year Ended December 31,Year-Over-Year Comparison
(In millions, except %)20202021
Segment gross profit:Amount% of Segment RevenueAmount% of Segment RevenueAmount% Change
Multicloud Services$810.2 37.8 %$793.4 32.4 %$(16.8)(2.1)%
Apps & Cross Platform115.5 34.3 %135.9 36.0 %20.4 17.7 %
OpenStack Public Cloud100.3 43.8 %67.1 36.7 %(33.2)(33.1)%
Non-GAAP Gross Profit$1,026.0 $996.4 $(29.6)(2.9)%

Multicloud Services gross profit decreased by 2% in 2021 from 2020. Segment gross profit as a percentage of segment revenue decreased by 540 basis points, reflecting a 24% increase in segment cost of revenue and a 14% increase in segment revenue. The increase in costs was mainly driven by higher third-party infrastructure costs due to the increase in revenue in our growth offerings resulting in a larger proportion of these services within this segment, partially offset by lower personnel, depreciation, data center and license expense.

Apps & Cross Platform gross profit increased 18% in 2021 from 2020. Segment gross profit as a percentage of segment revenue increased by 170 basis points, reflecting a 9% increase in segment cost of revenue and a 12% increase in segment revenue. The increase in cost of revenue was primarily driven by the segment’s higher business volume as well as higher third-party infrastructure costs.

OpenStack Public Cloud gross profit decreased 33% in 2021 from 2020 due to customer churn. Segment gross profit as a percentage of segment revenue decreased by 710 basis points, reflecting a 20% decrease in segment revenue, partially offset by a 10% decrease in segment cost of revenue.

The aggregate amount of costs reflected in consolidated gross profit but excluded from Non-GAAP Gross Profit was $59.6 million in 2021, an increase of $18.0 million from $41.6 million in 2020, reflecting higher restructuring and transformation expenses and share-based compensation, partially offset by lower purchase accounting adjustments and other compensation expense.

For more information about our segment gross profit, see Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 17, "Segment Reporting."

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Selling, General and Administrative Expenses

SG&A expenses decreased $53 million, or 6%, to $907 million in 2021 from $960 million in 2020. The reduction was driven by costs incurred in the prior year related to Onica Holdings LLC integration, IPO related expenses, and management consulting fees as the agreements were terminated in connection with the IPO. This reduction was partially offset by costs incurred in 2021 related to the July 2021 Restructuring Plan including $25 million of restructuring charges accounted for as exit and disposal costs under ASC 420. Other cost increases between periods include costs related to other business transformation initiatives and incremental costs to operate as a public company. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 10, "July 2021 Restructuring Plan" for additional information regarding the current period restructuring charges.

As a percentage of revenue, SG&A expenses decreased 530 basis points, to 30.1% in 2021 from 35.4% in 2020, for the reasons discussed above.

Impairment of Goodwill

As a result of our annual goodwill impairment test performed during the fourth quarter of 2021, we determined that the carrying amount of our OpenStack Public Cloud reporting unit exceeded its fair value and fully impaired its goodwill by recording a goodwill impairment charge of $52 million. The impairment was driven by deteriorating forecasted margins and cash flows within the reporting unit primarily due to operating costs declining at a slower rate than previously anticipated even after factoring in the long term impacts of the July 2021 Restructuring Plan. There was no such impairment in 2020. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 5, "Goodwill and Intangible Assets" for further discussion.

Gain on Sale of Land

In January 2021, we recorded a $20 million gain related to the sale of a parcel of undeveloped land in the United Kingdom adjacent to one of our existing data centers, as further discussed in Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 4, "Property, Equipment and Software, net."

Interest Expense

Interest expense decreased $63 million to $205 million in 2021 from $268 million in 2020, primarily driven by a reduction in total debt outstanding and lower interest rates as a result of significant debt refinancing transactions between periods.

Debt Modification and Extinguishment Costs

In 2021, we recorded $37 million and $0.5 million of debt modification and extinguishment costs related to the February 2021 Refinancing Transaction and termination of the Receivables Financing Facility, respectively. In 2020, we recorded $72 million of debt modification and extinguishment costs related to the repayment of $1,120 million aggregate principal amount of 8.625% Senior Notes. See Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 6, "Debt" for further discussion.

Benefit for Income Taxes

Our income tax benefit decreased by $35 million to $31 million in 2021 from $66 million in 2020. Our effective tax rate decreased from 21.2% in 2020 to 12.4% in 2021. The decrease in the effective tax rate year-over-year is primarily due to the geographic distribution of profits, the tax impact associated with goodwill impairment and changes in income tax reserves. The difference between the effective rate for 2021 and the statutory rate is primarily due to the geographic distribution of profits, the tax impact associated with goodwill impairment and executive compensation that is nondeductible under IRC Section 162(m) as a result of the IPO.

For a full reconciliation of our effective tax rate to the U.S. federal statutory rate and further explanation of our benefit for income taxes, see Item 8 of Part II, Financial Statements and Supplementary Data - Note 13, "Taxes."

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Non-GAAP Financial Measures

We track several non-GAAP financial measures to monitor and manage our underlying financial performance. The following discussion includes the presentation of constant currency revenue, Non-GAAP Gross Profit, Non-GAAP Net Income (Loss), Non-GAAP Operating Profit, Adjusted EBITDA and Non-GAAP EPS, which are non-GAAP financial measures that exclude the impact of certain costs, losses and gains that are required to be included in our profit and loss measures under GAAP. Although we believe these measures are useful to investors and analysts for the same reasons they are useful to management, as discussed below, these measures are not a substitute for, or superior to, U.S. GAAP financial measures or disclosures. Other companies may calculate similarly-titled non-GAAP measures differently, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures. We have reconciled each of these non-GAAP measures to the applicable most comparable GAAP measure throughout this MD&A.

Constant Currency Revenue

We use constant currency revenue as an additional metric for understanding and assessing our growth excluding the effect of foreign currency rate fluctuations on our international business operations. Constant currency information compares results between periods as if exchange rates had remained constant period over period and is calculated by translating the non-U.S. dollar income statement balances for the most current period to U.S. dollars using the average exchange rate from the comparative period rather than the actual exchange rates in effect during the respective period. We also believe this is an important metric to help investors evaluate our performance in comparison to prior periods.

The following tables present, by segment, actual and constant currency revenue and constant currency revenue growth rates, for and between the periods indicated:

Year Ended December 31, 2021Year Ended December 31, 2022% Change
(In millions, except %)RevenueRevenue
Foreign Currency Translation (a)
Revenue in Constant CurrencyActualConstant Currency
Multicloud Services$2,449.1 $2,574.9 $37.6 $2,612.5 5.1 %6.7 %
Apps & Cross Platform377.6 396.9 3.1 400.0 5.1 %5.9 %
OpenStack Public Cloud182.8 150.5 2.9 153.4